«BULLETIN OF THE IRKUTSK STATE UNIVERSITY. GEOARCHAEOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, AND ANTHROPOLOGY SERIES»
ISSN 2227-2380 (Print)

List of issues > «Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series». 2017. Vol. 21

Multilayered Sites as a Basis for Paleogeographic and Cultural Reconstructions in the Middle Holocene of the Baikal-Yenisei Siberia

Author(s)
I. M. Berdnikov, N. E. Berdnikova, G. A. Vorobieva
Abstract
We consider the degree of informative value of Middle Holocene multistratified geoarchaeological sites on the example of Baikal-Yenisei Siberia. Neolithic complexes in the Middle Holocene sediments are recorded in two situations: in macrolayered sites where the materials are contained in the profile of a fully developed modern soil, and in multilayered sites where the complexes are associated with underdeveloped and embryonic buried soils. Multilayered sites are the most common type, but they have a low degree of informative value, since in this case, the different cultural remains in the sediments are presented in so-called compression. Time of formation of soil horizons can reach several thousand years and as a rule, they do not have clear boundaries. This makes it difficult to identify chronometrically pure archaeological levels of findings. Nevertheless, based on the characteristics of soil of certain areas, it is possible to determine the typical situations and use them with some conditionality for the cultural and chronological attribution of different-time complexes. Multilayered sites acts as the most important archaeological source. Their informative value is much higher than that of macrolayered sites, due to the discrete nature of sedimentation and soil formation, which are associated with levels of human habitation. This allows us to determine the stratigraphic sequence and the relative chronology of the Neolithic culture horizons, and with an increasing of their numbers, we get the higher resolution of the "cultural record". In this respect, the sites where the cultural remains are contained in subaquatic-subaerial deposits of high floodplains are preferable. Radiocarbon AMS-dating provides an opportunity to determine sufficiently narrow chronometric intervals for individual archaeological complexes, which underlies the conceptual historical models. Features of the sediments of multilayered objects also make it possible to reveal the patterns of paleoclimatic dynamics and natural events at the regional level, to assess their compliance with global trends, and to reconstruct the human habitat in certain areas of the same site. This is their advantage over palynological studies.
Keywords
Baikal-Yenisei Siberia, Neolithic, Geoarchaeology, multilayered sites, stratigraphy, chronology, chronometry
UDC
903.02(571.1/5)«634»
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