«BULLETIN OF THE IRKUTSK STATE UNIVERSITY. GEOARCHAEOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, AND ANTHROPOLOGY SERIES»
ISSN 2227-2380 (Print)

List of issues > «Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series». 2017. Vol. 20

Some Results of the Russian-Canadian Archaeological Project of Irkutsk State University and the University of Alberta (1997–2017)

Author(s)
O. I. Goriunova, A. W. Weber
Abstract
The paper provides an overview of the collaborative Russian-Canadian research project on the Neolithic and Bronze Age hunter-gatherers in Cis-Baikal. It summarizes results of archaeological fieldwork (excavations of large cemeteries Shamanka 2, Khuzhir-Nuge 14, Kurma 11, Khadarta 4 and stratified habitations sites Sagan-Zaba 2 and Buguldeika 2) as well as multidisciplinary laboratory analyses (geoarchaeological, bio- and geochemical, anthropological, genetic, paleoecological, mineralogical etc.). The abundant new materials allowed reconstruction of mortuary practices, social organization and worldviews of the Early Neolithic Kitoi and Early Bronze Age Glazkovo cultures as well as development of new models of mobility, subsistence and adaptation of the past populations to the changing Holocene environment. The extensive program of radiocarbon dating (a few hundred of new AMS dates) permitted refined definition of the duration and boundaries of various archaeological periods within the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age. Most important among these is the identification of a discontinuity between the Kitoi and Serovo-Glazkovo mortuary assemblages dating to the period 6100–5300 BP (14C). Further examination of this phenomenon requires dedicated fieldwork and analyses. Materials from the stratified Sagan-Zaba 2 locality led to the identification of the freshwater reservoir effect impacting radiocarbon dating of human remains. It was established that bones of aquatic fauna, and consequently also bones of animals and humans consuming aquatic foods, contain increased amounts of old carbon, which makes radiocarbon dates obtained on such materials substantially older than their true archaeological age. Overall, the results of this joint research unequivocally demonstrate the excellent efficiency and productivity of this international collaboration. The materials generated by the project have substantial research potential to identify and address issues related to the examination of prehistoric cultures in Cis-Baikal.
Keywords
Cis-Baikal, Neolithic, Bronze Age, burial complexes, multilayered sites, multidisciplinary investigations, radiocarbon dating, freshwater reservoir effect
UDC
903(571.5)
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