«BULLETIN OF THE IRKUTSK STATE UNIVERSITY. GEOARCHAEOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, AND ANTHROPOLOGY SERIES»
ISSN 2227-2380 (Print)

List of issues > «Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series». 2017. Vol. 19

Research of the Neolithic in Tory Depression of the Tunka Rift Valley

Author(s)
V. I. Tashak, Yu. E. Antonova, D. V. Kobylkin
Abstract
In 2015 a comprehensive research of archaeological sites Pologii Kholm and Tybyrgyi was conducted on the south of Eastern Siberia, in Tory depression. In the course of investigations it is determined that covering deposits revealed at Pologii Kholm site are similar by appearance with widespread deposits containing archaeological materials in Tory and Tunka depression. Obtained dates allow to lead a chronological correlations with a set of archaeological sites of Tunka depression showing typologically similar lithological deposits and archeological materials. The article presents the analysis of archeological materials in the context of environmental development of Holocene in Tory depression. The nature of artifacts and their spatial distribution allow to conclude that the Pologii Kholm site was a site workshop with a structured activity in splitting stone raw materials and producing stone tools. On the Tybyrgyi site, a partially destroyed fireplace was discovered, damaged by cryoturbation processes. As part of archaeological findings, there are several small debris and one rectangular fragment of a pottery vessel with net-imprints. The reconstruction of paleoecological conditions was made on the basis of paleontological and spore-and-pollen data. This allows to reconstruct the natural environment with forest dominance. The method of radiocarbon dating defined the age of investigated objects: Tybyrgyi – 6430±130 BP (uncal.), Pologii Kholm – 5250±90 BP (uncal.). Thus, the time of the studied ancient site lies within the Atlantic period of the Holocene, when the formation of the Neolithic cultures is completed on the territory of the Baikal region and Transbaikalia. This age is confirmed with the presence of pottery fragments with net-impressed technical decoration in Tybyrgyi site and corded ware ones in Pologii Kholm site. Materials of Pologii Kholm site also include a big quantity of microblades and cores for their production. Stone industry and fragments of pottery from the investigated archaeological objects are similar to a number of sites in Tunka depression and in the South of Middle Siberia as a whole.
Keywords
Eastern Siberia, Tunka rift valley, Holocene, Neolithic, stone industry, pottery, chronology
UDC
902.01+903551.89
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