«BULLETIN OF THE IRKUTSK STATE UNIVERSITY. GEOARCHAEOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, AND ANTHROPOLOGY SERIES»
ISSN 2227-2380 (Print)

List of issues > «Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series». 2017. Vol. 19

Zaqamina Buryats in 19th Century: Ethnic Composition and Settlement

Author(s)
B. Z. Nanzatov, M. M. Sodnompilova
Abstract
The article deals with the study of ethnic composition of Zaqamina (Zakamensk) Buryats and features of their settlement on the territory of Zakamensk District of the Buryat Republic and Armak Tungus District, located in the headwaters of the Dzhida and Temnik rivers in the 19th century. Creation of the first Buryat territorial administrative units – Mirskaya izba and Steppe bureau (Stepnaya kontora) and their further development to Steppe Dumas led to the formation of ethno-territorial groups of Buryat people, the identity of which remains relevant to the present time. One of these groups had become Zaqamina Buryats. The ethnic composition of the Zaqamina Buryat occupying border area between Mongolia and Russia is of interest in it of small tribes (Saljiud, Dolongud) that lived only in these districts and not found in other departments of the Buryat authorities. Buffer status in the region of East Sayan Mountains territory led to the emergence and settling in this area during different periods of the history of ethnic Mongol, Turkic, Tungus tribes, such as Khoykho, Terte, Shosholok, Khongodor, Khurkhut, Zayaktai, Sentigen etc. This study continues the discussion on ethnicity and origin of small Buryat tribes and their relations with the Mongolic and Turkic tribes in Central Asia and South Siberia. Author's version of their origin offered based on historical and linguistic analysis of ethnonyms of these tribes, formed ethno-territorial group of Zaqamina Buryats. Reconstruction of the network of settlement of Buryat ethnic groups in the investigated territory in the 19th century allowed to recover the most complete picture of the Zaqamina Buryat and Armak khamnigan settlement with an indication of the maximum number of uluses, villages and Cossak yurts, which existed at the end of the 19th century. Also on the author's map was allocated status of the territory (Buryat, Cossack and peasant lands), and the ratio of the density of population of the Buryat tribes.
Keywords
Buryatia, ethnic history, ethnonyms, settlement, migration, linguistic analysis, Buryats, Tungus, Cossaks
UDC
39(913+80)
References

Aiyzhy E. V., Kongu A. A. Rodoplemennye gruppy tuvintsev Todzhinskogo raiona respubliki Tuva na sovremennom etape (po materialam polevykh issledovanii) [Clan and Tribal groups of Tuvans of Todzha region of the Republic of Tuva at the present stage (on materials of field researches)]. Vestnik Chuvashskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta im. I. Ya. Iakovleva [Bulletin of the I. Y. Yakovlev Chuvash state pedagogical University]. 2013, Is. 4–1(80), pp. 3–10. (In Russ.)

Babuev S. D. Iz rodoslovnyh zakamenskih buryat [From genealogies of Zakamenskie Buryats]. Baikal [Baikal]. 1996, Is. 4, pp. 131–142. (In Russ.)

Baldaev S. P. Buriad aradai aman zokhioloi tuuberi [Excerpts from Buryat folklore]. Ulan-Ude, Buryat book publishing house, 1960, 408 p. (In Buryat)

Baldaev S. P. Rodoslovnye predaniya i legendy buryat. [Genealogy stories and legends of Buryats]. Ulan-Ude, Buryat book publishing house, 363 p. (In Russ.)

Cheremisov K. M. Buryatsko-russkii slovar [Buryat-Russian dictionary]. Moscow, Sovetskaya entsiklopediya Publ., 1973, 803 p. (In Buryat In Russ.)

Dolgikh B. O. Rodovoi i plemennoi sostav narodov Sibiri v 17 veke [Clan and Tribal composition of the peoples of Siberia during the 17th century]. Moscow, AS USSR Publ., 621 p. (In Russ.)

Eremeev D. E. Etnogenez turok [Ethnogenesis of the Turks]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1971, 272 p. (In Russ.)

Funk D. A., Belgibaev E. A., Dobzhanskaya O. E. Chelkantsy [The Chelkans]. Tyurkskie narody Sibiri [The Turkic peoples of Siberia]. Moscow, 2006, pp. 463–490. (In Russ.)

Galdanova G. R. Zakamenskie buryaty. Istoriko-etnograficheskie ocherki (Vtoraia polovina 19 – pervaya polovina 20 vv.) [Zakamensk Buryats. Historic and ethnographic scetches (During the second half of 19th century – the first half of 20th century)]. Novosibirsk, Nauka Publ., 182 p. (In Russ.)

Kimeev V. M. Shortsy [The Shorians]. Tyurkskie narody Sibiri [The Turkic peoples of Siberia]. Moscow, 2006, pp. 236–323. (In Russ.)

Kononov A. N. Rodoslovnaya turkmen. Sochinenye Abu-l Gazi, khana khivinskogo [Turkmen genealogy. The composition of Abu-l Ghazi, the Khan of Khiva]. Moscow, AS USSR Publ., 1958, 193 p. (In Russ.)

Kuzeev R. G. Proiskhozhdenie bashkirskogo naroda. Etnicheskii sostav, istoriya rasseleniya [Ethnogenesis of Bashkir people. Ethnic composition, history of settlement]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1974, 576 p. (In Russ.)

Luvsandendev A. (ed.) Mongolsko-russkii slovar [Mongolian-Russian dictionary]. Moscow, State publishing house of foreign and national dictionaries, 1957, 715 p. (In Mongol In Russ.)

Nadelyaev V. M. Tsirkumbaikalskii iazykovoi soiuz [Circumbaikal language union]. Issledovaniia po fonetike yazykov i dialektov Sibiri [Studies on the phonetics of languages of Siberia]. Novosibirsk, 1986, pp. 3–4. (In Russ.)

Nadelyaev V. M., Nasilov D. M., Tenishev E. R., Shcherbak A. M. (eds.) Drevnetiurkskii slovar [Old Turkic dictionary]. Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 676 p. (In Russ.)

Nanzatov B. Z. Rasselenie i plemennoi sostav nomadov Tsentralnoi Azii v pred-chingisovskoe i chingisovskoe vremya (po dannym letopisei Rashid-ad-Dina) [Settlement and Tribe Composition of Central Asian Nomads at the time of Gengis-khan and before (on Rashid-al-Din's Jami al-Tawarikh)]. Mongolskaya imperia i kochevoi mir [Mongolian Empire and Nomadic World]. Ulan-Ude, 2008, Book 3, pp. 377–443. (In Russ.)

Nanzatov B. Z., Sodnompilova M. M. Alarskaya stepnaya duma (etnicheskii sostav i rasselenie alarskikh buryat v 19 v.) [The Alar steppe duma (ethnic composition and settlement of the Alar Buryats in the 19th century)]. Vestnik Buryatskogo nauchnogo tsentra SO RAN [Bulletin of Buryat scientific center SB RAS]. 2013, Is. 2 (10), pp. 47–57. (In Russ.)

Patkanov S. K. Statisticheskie dannye, pokazyvayushchie plemennoi sostav naseleniya Sibiri, yazyk i rody inorodtsev (na osnovanii dannykh spetsialnoi razrabotki materiala perepisi 1897 g.) [Statistical data showing the tribal composition of the population of Siberia, language and kind of foreigners (on the basis of a special development of the material to the 1897 census)]. St. Petersburg, 1912, Tom 3: Irkutskaya guberniya, Zabaikalskaya, Amurskaya, Yakutskaya, Primorskaya oblasti i ostrov Sakhalin [Vol. 3: the Irkutsk region, Zabaykalsky, Amur, Sakha, Primorye region and Island of Sakhalin], pp. 434–999. (Zapiski Imperatorskogo Russkogo Geograficheskogo Obshchestva po otdeleniyu statistiki Vyp. 3 [Notes of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in the Department of statistics Vol. 3]). (In Russ.)

Potapov L. P. Ocherki narodnogo byta tuvintsev [Essays on the Traditional Life of Tuvinians]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1969, 401 p. (In Russ.)

Rassadin V. I. Ocherki po istoricheskoi fonetike buryatskogo yazyka [Scetches on historic phonetics of the Buryat language]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1982, 199 p. (In Russ.)

Rashid-ad-din. Sbornik letopisei [A collection of Chronicles]. Moscow, Leningrad, USSR Academy of Sciences Publ., 1952, Vol. 1, book 1, 221 p. (In Russ.)

Rinchen B. (ed.). Etnolingvisticheskii atlas MNR [Ethnolinguistic Atlas of Mongolia]. Ulaanbaatar, 1979, 244 p. (In Russ.)

Serdobov N. A. Istoriia formirovaniia tuvinskoi natsii [History of the Tuvinian Nation Formation]. Kyzyl, Tuvinian Book Publ., 1971, 473 p. (In Russ.)

Shcherbachev A. (red.) Vysochayshe uchrezhdennaya pod predsedatelstvom stats-sekretarya Kulomzina Komissiya dlya issledovaniya zemlevladeniya i zemlepolzovaniya v Zabaykalskoy oblasti. Materialy. Vyp.5. Istoricheskiye svedeniya [Highest established under the chairmanship of State Secretary Kulomzin Commission for the study of land tenure and land use in the Trans-Baikal region. Materials. Issue 5. Historical information]. St. Petersburg, Izdaniye kantselyarii komiteta ministrov, 1898, 326 p. (In Russ.)

Tsybenov B. D. Daurskie rody v 17 v. [Daur clans in the 17th century]. Vestnik Bur-yatskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Bulletin of the Buryat State University]. 2011, Is. 8, pp. 238–246. (In Russ.)

Uvarova T. B. Nerchinskie evenki v 18–20 vekakh [Nerchinsk Evenki during 18th–20th centuries]. Moscow, INION Publ., 2004, 162 p. (In Russ.)

Vainshtein S. I. Etnograficheskaya ekspeditsiya v Yugo-Vostochnuyu Tuvu [Ethno-graphic expedition to South-East Tuva]. Sovetskaya etnografiya [Soviet Ethnography]. 1954, Is. 2, pp. 163–169. (In Russ.)


Full text (russian)