«BULLETIN OF THE IRKUTSK STATE UNIVERSITY. GEOARCHAEOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, AND ANTHROPOLOGY SERIES»
ISSN 2227-2380 (Print)

List of issues > «Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series». 2016. Vol. 17

Stone Industry of Podzvonkaya South-East Complex: General Characterization

Author(s)
Yu. E. Antonova, V. I. Tashak
Abstract
Upper Paleolithic site Podzvonkaya (located to the South of the Western Transbaikalia) became widely known by virtue of multiple and various evidences of not utilitarian, symbolic activity of ancient people. The site consists of four complexes situated close to each other inside the boundaries of a wide amphitheater-like notch. The complexes (Lower, Eastern, South-Eastern and Western) are provided with a set of dates showing their functioning at different times and associating the settlement with the Initial stage of Upper Paleolithic. The archeological materials of all complexes are considered in the frame of development of Tolbaga culture in the Western Transbaikal region. Albeit well-knowness of the Podzvonkaya site the stone industry of the complexes is represented in the literature only by fragments, the existing articles covered only the materials of Lower and Eastern complexes. This article presents the characteristics of primary knapping and toolkit from South-Eastern complex. Primary knapping is based on parallel reduction of flat and subprismatic cores aimed to get large blades, which are the main blanks for tools’ production. Toolkit contains Middle Paleolithic (points, side-scrapers, knives) and Upper Paleolithic (end-scrapers, burins, chisel-like tools) tool types. Upon the main features, the industry of SEC constitutes united developmental line with the other complexes of Podzvonkaya site. In broader terms, the industry bears a resemblance to contemporaneous sites of Mongolia and Altai (Tolbor 4, Kara-Bom). However, these industries display some diversities preventing from connecting the sites in the single network of direct migrations of ancient population.
Keywords
Upper Paleolithic, stone industry, artifacts typology, stratigraphy, Western Transbaikalia
UDC
903.01
References

Bazarov D.-D. B., Konstantinov M. V., Imetkhenov A. B., Bazarova L. D., Savinova V. V. Geologiya i kultura drevnikh poselenii Zapadnogo Zabaikaliya [Geology and culture of ancient sites in Western Transbaikal]. Novosibirsk, Nauka Publ., 1982, 162 p. (In Russ)

Gladyshev S. A., Olsen J., Tabarev A. V., Kuzmin Y. V. Chronology and periodization of Upper Paleolithic sites in Mongolia. Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia. 2010, Vol. 38, Is. 3, pp. 33–40. doi:10.1016/j.aeae.2010.10.003

Derevianko A. P. Three scenarios of the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Scenario 1: the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Northern Asia. Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia. 2010, Is. 38, pp. 2–32. doi: 10.1016/j.aeae.2010.10.002

Derevianko A. P. Verkhnii paleolit v Afrike i Evrazii i formirovanie cheloveka sovremennogo anatomicheskogo tipa [The Upper Palaeolithic in Africa and Eurasia and the Origin of Anatomically Modern Humans]. Novosibirsk, IAET SB RAS Publ., 2011, 560 p. (in Russ.)

Derevianko A. P., Shunkov M. V. Stanovlenie verkhnepaleoliticheskikh traditsii na Altae [Formation of the Upper Paleolithic traditions in the Altai]. Arkheologiya, etnografiya i antropologiya Evrazii [Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia]. 2004, Vol. 19, Is. 4, pp. 2–32. (In Russ.)

Derevianko A. P., Zenin A. N., Rybin E. P., Gladyshev S. A., Tsybankov A. A., Olsen J. W., Tseveendorzh D., Gunchinsuren B. Tekhnologiya rasshchepleniya kamnya na rannem etape verkhnego paleolita Severnoi Mongolii (stoyanka Tolbor-4) [The technology of early Upper Paleolithic lithic reduction in Northern Mongolia (the Tolbor-4 site)]. Arkheologiya, etnografiya i antropologiya Evrazii [Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia]. 2007, Vol. 29, Is. 1, pp. 16–38. (in Russ.)

Derevianko A. P., Rybin E. P., Gladyshev S. A., Gunchinsuren B., Tsybankov A. A., Olsen J. W. Early Upper Paleolithic stone tool technologies of Northern Mongolia: the case of Tolbor-4 and Tolbor-15. Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia. 2013, Vol. 41, Is. 4, pp. 21–37. doi:10.1016/j.aeae.2014.07.004

Konstantinov M. V. Kamennyi vek vostochnogo regiona Baikalskoi Azii [The Stone Age of the Eastern region of Baikal Asia]. Ulan-Ude, Chita, Buryat scientific center SB RAS Publ., Chita State Pedagogical University Publ., 1994, 180 p. (in Russ.)

Lbova L. V. Paleolit severnoi zony Zapadnogo Zabaikaliya [Paleolithic of the Northern Part of Western Trans-Baikal]. Ulan-Ude, BSC SB RAS Publ, 2000, 240 p. (in Russ.)

Lbova L. V. K probleme perekhoda ot srednego k verkhnemu paleolitu (materialy Zapadnogo Zabaikaliya) [The transition from the Middle to Upper Paleolithic in Western Transbaikal]. Arkheologiya, etnografiya i antropologiya Evrazii [Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia]. 2002, Vol. 9, Is. 1, pp. 59–75. (In Russ.)

Lbova L. V., Rezanov I. N., Kalmykov N. P., Kolomiets V. L., Dergacheva М. I., Fedeneva I. K., Vashukevich N. V., Volkov P. V., Savinova V. V., Bazarov B. A., Namsaraev D. V. Prirodnaya sreda i chelovek v neopleistotsene (Zapadnoe Zabaikalie i Yugo-Vostochnoe Pribaikalie) [Environment and Humans in the Neopleistocene (Western Trans-Baikal and South-Eastern Cis-Baikal]. Ulan-Ude, BSC SB RAS Publ, 2003, 208 p. (in Russ.)

Rybin E. P. Khronologiya i geograficheskoe rasprostranenie kulturno znachimykh artefaktov v nachalnom verkhnem paleolite Severnoi Azii i vostochnoi chasti Tsentralnoi Azii [Chronology and Geographical Distribution of Culture-Significant Artifacts in the Initial Upper Paleolithic of North Asia and Eastern Part of Central Asia]. Izvestiya Altaiskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [The Bulletin of Altai State University]. 2014, Is. 4–1 (84), pp. 188–198. doi:10.14258/izvasu(2014)4.1-32 (in Russ.)

Rybin E. P. Tools, beads, and migrations: Specific cultural traits in the Initial Upper Paleolithic of Southern Siberia and Central Asia. Quaternary International. 2014, Is. 347, pp. 39–52. doi.:10.1016/j.quaint.2014.04.031

Tashak V. I. Kostyanye orudiya nachala verkhnego paleolita na yuge Buryatii [Bone tools of the beginning of Upper Palaeolithic in the south of Buryatia]. Gumanitarnye nauki v Sibiri [Humanitarian sciences in Siberia]. 1997, Is. 3, pp. 35–40. (in Russ)

Tashak V. I. Obrabotka skorlupy yaits strausov v verkhnem paleolite Zabaikaliya (Ostrich eggshells working in Upper Paleolithic of Trans-Baikal). Istoriya i kultura Vostoka Azii [History and Culture of Asian East]. Novosibirsk, IAET SB RAS Publ., 2002, Vol. 2, pp. 159–164. (in Russ).

Tashak V. I. Orudiya iz kosti i ikh proizvodstvo v verkhnem paleolite Zapadnogo Zabaikaliya (po materialam Podzvonkoi) [Tools from bones and their production in the Upper Palaeolithic of Western Trans-Baikal (on the materials of Podzvonkaya)]. Izvestiya Laboratorii drevnikh tekhnologii [Reports of the Laboratory of Ancient technologies]. 2007, Vol. 5, pp. 118–137. (in Russ.)

Tashak V. I. Plastinchatye industrii Zabaikaliya: voprosy genezisa i razvitiya [Lamellate industries in Trans-Baikal: issues of genesis and development]. STRATUM plus. 2009a, Is. 1, pp. 79–93. (in Russ.)

Tashak V. I. Simvolizm v nachale verkhnego paleolita Zapadnogo Zabaikaliya [Simbolism in the Early Upper Palaeolithic of Western Transbaikalia]. Zapiski Instituta istorii materialnoi kultury RAN [Proceedings of Institute of History of material culture RAS]. 2009b, Is. 4, pp. 50–62. (in Russ.)

Tashak V. I. K obosnovaniyu novoi arkheologicheskoi kultury v verkhnem paleolite Zabaikaliya [To the grounds of new archeological culture in Upper Paleolithic of Zabaikalie]. Vestnik Buryatskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [The Bulletin of Buryat State University]. 2010, Is. 8. Oriental studies, pp. 234–241. (in Russ.)

Tashak V. I. Ochag kak obiekt kultovoi deyatelnosti v pozdnem paleolite Zabaikaliya (po arkheologicheskim dannym) [Hearth as the object of sacral activity in the Upper Palaeolithic of Transbaikalia]. STRATUM plus. 2011a, Is. 1, pp. 303–318. (in Russ.)

Tashak V. I. Khronologiya rannego etapa verkhnego paleolita Zapadnogo Zabaikaliya (po materialam Podzvonkoi) [Chronology of the Early Upper Paleolithic of Western Trans-Baikalian (with particular reference to the materials of Podzvonkaya)]. Rossiiskii arkheologicheskii ezhegodnik [Russian Archaeological Yearbook]. 2011b, Is. 1, pp. 100–110. (in Russ.)

Tashak V. I. Paleoliticheskaya kultura khengerekte v Zabaikalie [Palaeolithic culture khenderekte in Trans-Baikal]. Drevnie kultury Mongolii i Baikalskoi Sibiri [Ancient cultures of Mongolia and Baikal Siberia]. Chita, Trans-Baikal State University Publ., 2013, Vol. 1, pp. 196–201. (in Russ.)

Tashak V. I. Ochagi v strukture 3-go kulturnogo gorizonta Vostochnogo kompleksa Podzvonkoi [Hearths in the Structure of the 3d cultural layer of Eastern Complex of Podzvonkaya Site]. Evraziya v kainozoe. Stratigrafiya, paleoekologiya, kultury [Eurasia in the Cenozoic. Stratigraphy, Paleoecology, Cultures]. 2014a, Is. 3, pp. 142–158. (in Russ.)

Tashak V. I. Stanovlenie rannego verkhnego paleolita Zapadnogo Zabaikaliya (po materialam Nizhnego kompleksa stoyanki Podzvonkaya) [Formation of the Early Upper Palaeolithic in Western Trans-Baikal (with particular reference to the Lower Complex of the Podzvonkaya site)]. STRATUM plus. 2014b, Is. 1, pp. 149–164. (in Russ.)

Tashak V. I., Antonova Yu. E. K voprosu o dobyche ognya i ego kulte v paleolite Zapadnogo Zabaikaliya [To the question of fire-making and cult of fire in the Western Trans-Baikal Paleolithic]. Vestnik Novosibirskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta Seriya: Istoriya, filologiya [The Bulletin of the Novosibirsk State University. Series: History, Philology]. 2012, Vol. 11, Is. 7: Archaeology and Ethnography, pp. 56–67. (in Russ.)

Vasiliev S. G., Rybin E. P. Tolbaga: Upper Paleolithic settlement patterns in the Trans-Baikal region. Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia. 2009, Vol. 37, Is. 4, pp. 13–34. doi:10.1016/j.aeae.2010.02.005


Full text (russian)