«BULLETIN OF THE IRKUTSK STATE UNIVERSITY. GEOARCHAEOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, AND ANTHROPOLOGY SERIES»
ISSN 2227-2380 (Print)

List of issues > «Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series». 2018. Vol. 23

Results of the Study and Dating of the Early Neolithic Burial Complexes in Olkhon Region (Lake Baikal)

Author(s)
O. I. Goriunova, A. G. Novikov, G. V. Turkin, A. W. Weber
Abstract

For the first time all Early Neolithic burial complexes in Olkhon region (the western coast of Lake Baikal) have been generalized and analyzed. There were studied nine cemeteries and single graves, including 28 burials. The largest among them are Khotoruk 2, Khonkhoiskaya Guba 2 and Kurma 11. According to the features of the outside and inside grave constructions, the body position in the grave, orientation, additional details of the funeral rite and the typology of the associated inventory, two main groups of burial places are identified, united by a stable set of characteristic features: Khotoruk (Olkhon region variant of the Kitoi mortuary practice) and Kurma variant. They differ in a body positioning; presence or absence of the ocher; set and typology of associated inventory. It was revealed that the first group is characterized by the placement of the deceased: they have been laying on the back with bent legs, on the right side with bent legs and skewed, and for the Kurma group – stretched out on the back. It is noted that Early Neolithic burials with different mortuary traditions cannot be found on one cemetery. They belonged probably to different groups of the population. The age of the burial complexes was determined on the analysis of new AMS-dates, taking into account their correction for the reservoir effect. In accordance with them, the Kurma group existed within the range of 8177–7330 cal BP, and Khotoruk – within the range of 7749–7163 cal BP. It is highly possible that for some period both practices co-existed. On the territory of Olkhon region, the burials with the Kitoi tradition (Khotoruk group) have local differences from the “classical" Kitoi”, which area lies in the Upper Angara region (the presence of stone structures and a body positioning with bent legs in different variations). According to the peculiarities of the body positioning, they are close to the East Baikal (Fofanovo) group and a number of burials of Shamanka II cemetery in the Southern Baikal. The variety of burial practices discovered in the territory of the Olkhon region testifies to the more complex ethnic processes taking place in this region.

About the Authors

Goriunova Olga Ivanovna, Candidate of Sciences (History), Senior Researcher, Scientific Researcher Center "Baikal Region", Irkutsk State University; 1, K. Marx st., Irkutsk, 664003, Russian Federation, Leading Researcher, Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS; 17, Akad. Lavrentiev av., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation, e-mail: as122@yandex.ru 

Novikov Alexei Gennadievich, Candidate of Sciences (History), Researcher, Scientific Researcher Center "Baikal region", Irkutsk State University; 1, K. Marx st., Irkutsk, 664003, Russian Federation, Researcher, Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS; 17, Akad. Lavrentiev av., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation, e-mail: as122@yandex.ru 

Turkin Gennadii Vladimirovich, Candidate of Sciences (History), Archaeologist, «Altamira» LLC.; 73-6-43, Angarsk, 665830, Russian Federation, e-mail: angtur@list.ru 

Weber Andrzej W., Ph. D., Professor, Department of Anthropology, University of Alberta; 13-15 HM Tory Building, Edmonton, AB T6G 2H4, Canada, e-mail: aweber@ualberta.ca

For citation

Goriunova O. I., Novikov A. G., Turkin G. V., Weber A. W. Results of the Study and Dating of the Early Neolithic Burial Complexes in Olkhon Region (Lake Baikal). Bulletin of the Irkutsk State University. Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series, 2018, Vol. 23, pp. 44–70. https://doi.org/10.26516/2227-2380.2018.23.44 (in Russ.)

Keywords
Lake Baikal, Olkhon region, Early Neolithic, burial complexes, Khotoruk group, Kurma group, radiocarbon dating, reservoir effect
UDC
903.5(571.53)"6343"
DOI
https://doi.org/10.26516/2227-2380.2018.23.44
References

Aseev I. V. Yugo-Vostochnaya Sibir v epokhu kamnya i metalla [South-Eastern Siberia in the Era of Stone and Metal]. Novosibirsk, IAET SB RAS Publ., 2003, 208 p. (In Russ.)

Bazaliiskii V. I. Pogrebalnye kompleksy epokhi pozdnego mezolita – neolita Baikalskoi Sibiri: traditsii pogrebenii, absolyutnyi vozrast [Burial complexes of the Late Mesolithic – Neolithic of Baikal Siberia: the tradition of burials, absolute age]. Izvestiya Laboratorii drevnikh tekhnologii [Reports of the Laboratory of Ancient Technologies]. 2012, Vol. 9, pp. 43–101. (In Russ.)

Berdnikov I. M. Klyuchevye aspekty istoriko-kulturnykh protsessov na yuge Srednei Sibiri v epokhu neolita (po materialam keramicheskikh kompleksov) [Key aspects of historical and cultural procedures in South of Middle Siberia during the Neolithic period (based on pottery complexes)]. Izvestiya Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya Geoarkheologiya. Etnologiya. Antropologiya [Bulletin of the Irkutsk State University. Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series]. 2013, Vol. 1 (2), pp. 203–229. (In Russ.)

Gerasimov M. M., Chernykh E. M. Raskopki Fofonovskogo mogilnika v 1959 g. [Excavations of Fofonovo burial ground in 1959]. Pervobytnaya arkheologiya Sibiri [Prehistoric Archaeology of Siberia]. Leningrad, 1975, pp. 23–48. (In Russ.)

Goriunova O. I. Serovskie pogrebeniya Priolkhoniya (ozero Baikal) [Serovo burials in the Olkhon region (Lake Baikal)]. Novosibirsk, IAET SB RAS Publ., 1997, 112 p. (In Russ.)

Goriunova O. I., Khlobystin L. P. Datirovka kompleksov poseleniya i pogrebenii bukhty Ulan-Khada [The dating of settlement and burials complexes of Ulan-Khada Bay]. Drevnosti Baikala [Antiquities of Baikal]. Irkutsk, 1992, pp. 41–56. (In Russ.)

Goriunova O. I., Novikov A. G. Keramika rannego neolita iz poselenii poberezhiya oz. Baikal [Ceramics of the Early Neolithic from the settlements of the coast of Lake Baikal]. Trudy V (XXI) Vserossiiskogo arkheologicheskogo siezda v Barnaule – Belokurikhe [Proceedings of the V (XXI) All-Russian Archaeological Congress in Barnaul – Belokurikha]. Barnaul, 2017, Vol. 1, pp. 137–140. (In Russ.) 

Goriunova O. I., Weber A. W. Raboty Rossiisko-Kanadskoi ekspeditsii na mogilnikakh bronzovogo veka poberezhiya oz. Baikal [Fieldwork by the Russian-Canadian expedition at Bronze Age cemeteries on the coast of Lake Baikal]. Problemy arkheologii, etnografii, antropologii Sibiri i sopredelnykh territorii [Problems of Archaeology, Ethnography, Anthropology of Siberia and Neighboring Territories]. 2003, Vol. 9, Is. 1, pp. 331–335. (In Russ.)

Goriunova O. I., Novikov A. G., Weber A. W. Keramika rannego neolita Pribaikaliya (po materialam mnorosloinogo poseleniya Sagan-Zaba II) [Early Neolithic pottery in Cis-Baikal (based on the materials from a multilayered settlement Sagan-Zaba 2)]. Trudy III (XIX) Vserossiiskogo arkheologicheskogo siezda [Proceedings of the 3 (19) All-Russian Archaeological Congress]. St. Petersburg, Moscow, Velikii Novgorod, 2011, Vol. 1, pp. 125–127. (In Russ.)

Goriunova O. I., Weber A. W., Novikov A. G. Pogrebalnye kompleksy neolita i bronzovogo veka Priolkhoniya: mogilnik Kurma XI [Burial complexes of the Neolithic and Bronze Age in the Olkhon region: Kurma XI burial ground]. Irkutsk, ISU Publ., 2012, 271 p. (In Russ.)

Gryaznov M. P., Maksimenkov G. A. Zadachi i itogi rabot Irkutskoi ekspeditsii [The tasks and results of the work of the Irkutsk expedition]. Drevnosti Baikala [Antiquities of Baikal]. Irkutsk, 1992, pp. 5–13. (In Russ.)

Kichigin D. E. Neoliticheskoe pogrebenie na myse Uyuga (oz. Baikal) [Neolithic burial at the сape Uyuga (Lake Baikal)]. Drevnie kultury Mongolii i Baikalskoi Sibiri [Ancient cultures of Mongolia and Baikal Siberia]. Kyzyl, 2014, Vol. 1, pp. 93–97. (In Russ.)

Kichigin D. E., Emeliyanova Yu. A., Korostelev A. M. Parnoe pogrebenie rannego bronzovogo veka mogilnika Mys Uyuga (predvaritelnoe soobshchenie) [The Husband-and-wife burial in the Early Bronze Age at the Mys Uyuga burial ground (Early Report)]. Drevnie kultury Mongolii, Baikalskoi Sibiri i Severnogo Kitaya [Ancient cultures of Mongolia, Baikal Siberia and Northern China]. Chanchun, 2017, pp. 102–107. (In Russ.)

Komarova M. N., Sher Ya. A. Mogilniki bukhty Ulan-Khada [Burial grounds of Ulan-Khada Bay]. Drevnosti Baikala [Antiquities of Baikal]. Irkutsk, 1992, pp. 32–41. (In Russ.)

Konopatskii A. K. Drevnie kultury Baikala [The ancient culture of Baikal]. Novosibirsk, Nauka Publ., 1982, 176 p. (In Russ.)

Losey R. J., Fleming L., Nomokonova Т., Bazaliiskii V. I., Klementiev A. M., Saveliev N. A. Angara-Southwest Baikal. Holocene Zooarchaeology of Cis-Baikal. 2017, Ch. 3, pp. 27–51.

Nomokonova Т., Losey R. J., Goriunova O. I., Weber A. W. A freshwater old carbon offset in Lake Baikal, Siberia and problems with the radiocarbon dating of archaeological sediments: Evidence from the Sagan-Zaba II site. Quaternary International. 2013, Vol. 290–291, pp. 110–125.

Novikov A. G., Goriunova O. I. Neoliticheskie pogrebeniya Priolkhoniya (oz. Baikal): periodizatsiya i khronologiya [Neolithic burials of Olkhon region (Lake Baikal): periodization and chronology]. Drevnie kultury Mongolii i Baikalskoi Sibiri [Ancient cultures of Mongolia and Baikal Siberia]. Ulaan-Baatar, 2012, Vol. 3, Is. 1, pp. 80–89. (In Russ.)

Novikov A. G., Goriunova O. I. Skulptura malykh form iz poselenii neolita i bronzovogo veka poberezhiya ozera Baikal [Small sculptures from Neolithic and Bronze Age settlements on the shores of Lake Baikal]. Arkheologiya, etnographiya i antropologiya Evrazii [Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia]. 2016, Vol. 44, Is. 4, pp. 60–66. (In Russ.)

Okladnikov A. P. Neolit i bronzovyi vek Pribaikaliya [Neolithic and Bronze Age of the Cis-Baikal region]. Materialy i issledovaniya po arkheologii SSSR; N 18 [Materials and research on Archeology of the USSR; Vol. 18]. Moscow, Leningrad, AS USSR Publ., 1950, Part 1 and 2, 412 p. (In Russ.)

Saveliev N. A. Neolit yuga srednei Sibiri (istoriya osnovnykh idei i sovremennoe sostoyanie problemy) : avtoref. dis. … kand. ist. nauk [The Neolithic of the South of Middle Siberia (history of the basic ideas and current state of the problem). Cand. of histor. sci. syn. diss.]. Novosibirsk, 1989, 25 p. (In Russ.)

Saveliev N. A., Tetenkin A. V., Igumnova E. S., Abdulov T. A., Ineshin E. M., Osadchii S. S., Vetrov V. M., Klementiev A. M., Mamontov M. A., Orlova L. A., Shibanova I. V. Mnogosloinyi geoarkheologicheskii obiekt Ust-Khaita (predvaritelnye dannye) [Multilayered geoarchaeological object Ust-Khaita (preliminary data)]. Sovremennye problemy Evraziiskogo paleolitovedeniya [Current problems in the Eurasian Paleolithology]. Novosibirsk, 2001, pp. 338–347. (In Russ.)

Studzitskaya S. V. Sootnoshenie proizvodstvennykh i kultovykh funktsii sibirskikh neoliticheskikh izobrazhenii ryb [Ratio of production and cult functions of Siberian Neolithic images of fish]. Iz istorii Sibiri [From the history of Siberia]. Tomsk, 1976, Vol. 21, pp. 74–89. (In Russ.)

Timoshchenko A. A., Bocharova E. N. Predvaritelnye rezultaty izucheniya mnogosloinogo arkheologicheskogo obiekta Buguldeika I na yugo-zapadnom poberezhie oz. Baikal v 2016 godu [The first results of excavation on Buguldeika 1 multilayers site at 2016 (South-West Coast of Baikal)]. Evraziya v kainozoe. Stratigrafiya, paleoekologiya, kultury [Eurasia in the Cenozoic. Stratigraphy, Paleoecology, Cultures]. 2016, Vol. 5, pp. 180–187. (In Russ.)

Weber A. W., Goriunova O. I. Khronologiya mogilnika Kurma XI (oz. Baikal) po arkheologicheskim i radiouglerodnym dannym [Chronology of Kurma 11 burial ground (Lake Baikal) for archaeological and radiocarbon data]. Izvestiya Laboratorii drevnikh tekhnologii [Reports of the Laboratory of Ancient Technologies]. 2005, Vol. 3, pp. 186–190. (In Russ.)

Weber A. W., Beukens R. P., Bazaliiskii V. I., Goriunova O. I., Saveliev N. A. Radiocarbon dates from Neolithic and Bronze Age hunter-gatherer cemeteries in the Cis-Baikal region of Siberia. Radiocarbon. 2006, Vol. 48 (1), pp. 127–166.

Weber A., Schulting R. J., Ramsey C. B., Bazaliiskii V. I., Goriunova O. I., Berdnikova N. E. Chronology of Middle Holocene hunter-gatherers in the Cis-Baikal region of Siberia: Corrections based on examination of the freshwater reservoir effect. Quaternary International. 2016, Vol. 419, pp. 74–98.


Full text (russian)