«BULLETIN OF THE IRKUTSK STATE UNIVERSITY. GEOARCHAEOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, AND ANTHROPOLOGY SERIES»
ISSN 2227-2380 (Print)

List of issues > «Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series». 2018. Vol. 24

Regional Sources of the Obirakhmatian: New Data from Kulbulak Site

Author(s)
K. K. Pavlenok, G. D. Pavlenok, S. A. Kogai, M. Khuzhanazarov
Abstract

The article deals with new materials of Kulbulak site in the Western Tien Shan. Researches undertaken in 2016–2017 allow to update the view on the issue of the regional technological development in the pre-Obirakhmatian. Archaeological materials of the layer 14 include small quantity of technologically significant pieces. Among of them two cores in initial stage of Levallois knapping stand out. Also two points can be attributed as products of this type of lithic production. In this manner the general characteristic of the lithic industry of layer 14 is the presence of Levallois technology usual to collections of layers 12.1 and 12.3 as well. Lithic collection of layer 16 is marked by following features: only presence of multidirectional (for flakes) and subcylindrical (for blades and elongated points) cores; equal ratio of flakes and blades with some bladelets; intensive formation of striking platform is not typical; absence of series of core trimming flakes; presence of only two Middle Paleolithic type tools retouched intensively. Materials of layer 17.1 are similar to the one of layer 16 at all but with some individual characteristics: combination of edge- and flat-faced (Levallois?) primary knapping for blades; presence of some typical points; prevalence of overpassed flakes among core trimming flakes specific to flat-faced (Levallois?) pimary knapping; presence each of intensively shaped and non-formal tools based on blades. Industries allow us to identify some characteristics that distinguish them from later Middle Paleolithic complexes of Kulbulak (layers 12.1 and 12.3). Collections of layers 14 and 17.1 have significant Levallois technological base preserved in the later Middle Paleolithic layers of the site sporadically. Crucial significance is the absence of the Upper Paleolithic types both in primary knapping and tool-sets. The absence of cultural meaningful markers of the Final Middle Paleolithic or the Middle to the Upper Paleolithic transition time (truncated-faceted, unifaced pieces and so on) is significant feature of industries of layers 14 and 17.1. Techno-typological analysis shows that the oldest manifestation of the blade Middle Paleolithic industrial variant with Levallois base in the West of Central Asia was recorded in stratified position at Kulbulak site. Probable affiliation of these complexes to the Middle – Upper Pleistocene boundary requires a discussion of scenarios of the emergence of Obirakhmatian Middle Paleolithic industries in Pamir Tien Shan and revision of chronology of this process towards increasing.

About the Authors

Pavlenok Konstantin Konstantinovich, Candidate of Sciences (History), Assistance director, Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS; 17, Acad. Lavrentiev av., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation; Researcher, Novosibirsk State University; 1, Pirogov st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation, e-mail: pavlenok-k@yandex.ru

Pavlenok Galina Dmitrievna, Candidate of Sciences (History), Researcher, Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS; 17, Acad. Lavrentiev av., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation, e-mail: lukianovagalina@yandex.ru

Kogai Sergei Aleksandrovich, Research Engineer, Scientific Research Center «Baikal region», Irkutsk State University; 1, K. Marx st., Irkutsk, 664003, Russian Federation, e-mail: kogai@irkutsk.ru

Khuzhanazarov Mukhiddin, Candidate of Sciences (History), Institute of Archaeological Researches AS RUz; 3, Abdullaev st., Samarkand, 703051, Republic of Uzbekistan, e-mail: sarmish@mail.ru

For citation

Pavlenok K. K., Pavlenok G. D., Kogai S. A., Khuzhanazarov M. Regional Sources of the Obirakhmatian: New Data from Kulbulak Site. Bulletin of the Irkutsk State University. Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series. 2018, Vol. 24, pp. 3–22. https://doi.org/10.26516/2227-2380.2018.24.3 (in Russ.)

Keywords
Middle Paleolithic, Middle – Upper Pleistocene boundary, Pamir – Tien Shan, Kulbulak, Obirakhmatian
UDC
903.01(575.1)"6323"
DOI
https://doi.org/10.26516/2227-2380.2018.24.3
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