«BULLETIN OF THE IRKUTSK STATE UNIVERSITY. GEOARCHAEOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, AND ANTHROPOLOGY SERIES»
ISSN 2227-2380 (Print)

List of issues > «Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series». 2018. Vol. 24

Forts of Xiongnu Period on the Territory of Tuva

Author(s)
S. V. Danilov, N. V. Imenokhoev, B. Z. Nanzatov, A. I. Simukhin, D. K. Tulush, L. Erdenebold
Abstract

The article dedicated to the history of Xiongnu in the borders of northern periphery of the nomadic empire, in the upper reaches of Yenisei River. The culture of the nomads of Inner Asia in the Xiongnu period has undergone significant changes. One of them was the appearance of big fortified stationary objects. The key sites of the Xiongnu archaeology is not only burial complexes but the fortifications too. The first forts emerged around the end of the 3rd century BC. New forts based throughout the whole existence of the Xiongnu Empire. However, the emergence of the early settlements in nomadic societies has no final decision about the mechanism of urban culture formation in the region. Xiongnu people after conquer of the Sayano-Altai tribes established their power here, securing it with the construction of several fortresses. We present the results of the study of Xiongnu forts in Tuva obtained in the field work of the international Russian-Mongolian archaeological expedition in 2011. During the expedition there were researched forts in the Kyzyl and Ulug-Khem regions in the central part of Tuva (Kyilyg-Khovu and Baryk), and in the Bai-Taiga region in the west of Tuva, close to the border of the Altai Republic (Teeli). The fortification sites are in different state of preservation. Kyilyg-Khovu and Baryk have not actually suffered since the days of the research of L. R. Kyzlasov in the middle of the 20th century. However, the Teeli fort is located in the active development zone of the present settlement. On the site of the fort several streets were built. A visual inspection of the terrain, an analysis of satellite images with data from the excavations allows to identify the design features of the forts and define their cultural and chronological interpretation. The study allowed us to identify the preferred places for the construction of such forts (in river valleys), their configuration (sub-square form, along the north-south axis), construction technology and the absence of intra-urban facilities. The results will expand the horizons of understanding the history of nomadic empires in the early period.

About the Authors

Danilov Sergei Vladimirovich, Doctor of Sciences (History), Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies of SB RAS; 6, Sakhyanova st., Ulan-Ude, 670047, Russian Federation

Imenokhoev Nikolai Vladimirovich, Senior Researcher, Laboratory of Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology, Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies SB RAS; 6, Sakhyanova st., Ulan-Ude, 670047, Russian Federation, e-mail: yni@mail.ru

Nanzatov Bair Zoriktoevich, Candidate of Sciences (History), Senior Researcher, Laboratory of Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology, Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies SB RAS; 6, Sakhianova st., Ulan-Ude, 670047, Russian Federation, e-mail: nanzatov@yandex.ru

Simukhin Alexander Iliich, Candidate of Sciences (History), Researcher, Laboratory of Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology, Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies SB RAS; 6, Sakhyanova st., Ulan-Ude, 670047, Russian Federation, e-mail: symply.sima@mail.ru

Tulush Demir Konstantinovich, Candidate of Sciences (History), Deputy Director, Tuvan Institute for Applied Studies of Humanities and Socioeconomics; 4, Kochetov st., Kyzyl, 667000, Russian Federation, e-mail: demirtdk@mail.ru

Erdenebold Lkhagvasuren, Candidate of Sciences (History), Senior Researcher, Humanitarian Institute, Mongolian University of Science and Technology; 34, Baga Toiruu st., 8th khoroo, 14191, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, e-mail: erdene-ethnology@yahoo.com

For citation

Danilov S. V., Imenokhoev N. V., Nanzatov B. Z., Simukhin A. I., Tulush D. K., Ochir A., Erdenebold L. Forts of Xiongnu Period on the Territory of Tuva. Bulletin of the Irkutsk State University. Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series. 2018, Vol. 24, pp. 74–92. https://doi.org/10.26516/2227-2380.2018.24.74 (in Russ.)

Keywords
Inner Asia, Tuva, archaeology, Xiongnu, fortification, nomads
UDC
902.43
DOI
https://doi.org/10.26516/2227-2380.2018.24.74
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