ISSN 2227-2380 (Print)

List of issues > «Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series». 2018. Vol. 25

Experience of Reconstruction of the Early Neolithic Kitoi Fishhook (Baikal-Yenisei Siberia)

K. A. Krutikova, N. V. Tsoi

The results of reconstruction of the Kitoi composite fishhook (Early Neolithic of Baikal-Yenisei Siberia) are presented. This class of grave goods is prevalent in Early Neolithic Kitoi burials; however, for the all-time of study, only two theoretical hypotheses about their appearance and construction were performed. The relevance of the work is based on the fact that there is no reconstruction carried out under experimental conditions. The reconstruction using the experiment was absent and this fact determines the relevance of the present study. The purpose of study is to recreate the structural elements of Kitoi composite fishhook and the method of their attachment to each other, and describing the making technique of fishhook elements. Experimental method helps to overcome the chronological gap between the archaeological source and the researcher. It can significantly complement the speculative concepts, or completely refute them. The source base of study consists of composite fishhook’s elements from Early Neolithic burial complexes of Galashikha, Shumilikha, Kitoi, Lokomotiv and Ust-Belaya. For modeling the structural parts were used fragments of soapstone and bone; for fixing the elements between each other were used a nettle cord and pine resin. The final tool was tested for strength. It was found that the manufacture of a fishing hook takes about 7 hours. The reconstruction made it possible to clarify some issues about the making technique of fishing gear and the specifics of fishing in the Early Neolithic in region. The sizes of hooks may indicate their use for catching different types of fish with help of different methods for this. The suitability of small and large hooks directly for fishing raises certain doubts. We suppose that medium hooks could be used for bottom fishing, because final product turned out quite massive and heavy. Thus, the almost complete morphological similarity of the fishhooks in this case does not indicate their absolutely identical function. Despite the successful reconstruction of the hook, at the moment is not possible to talk about the full modeling of even one of the types of fishing, because the hook tackle is used in a fairly wide range of various fishing methods. Composite fishhooks are notable for their ease of making and durability of the final product, they are effective and easy to use, which probably contributed to their wide distribution among the Early Neolithic population of Baikal Baikal-Yenisei Siberia.

About the Authors

Krutikova Kseniya Aleksandrovna, Trainee Researcher, Scientific Research, Center “Baikal Region”, Irkutsk State University; 1, K. Marx st., Irkutsk, 664003, Russian Federation, e-mail: kseniya_krutikova@mail.ru

Tsoi Nikolai Vyacheslavovich, Bacteriologist, Khabarovsk Plague Control Station; 7, Sanitarnyi ln., Khabarovsk, 680031, Russian Federation, e-mail: Azylum@inbox.ru

For citation

Krutikova K. A., Tsoi N. V. Experience of Reconstruction of the Early Neolithic Kitoi Fishhook (Baikal-Yenisei Siberia). Bulletin of the Irkutsk State University. Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series. 2018, Vol. 25, pp. 19–35. https://doi.org/10.26516/2227-2380.2018.25.19 (in Russ.)

Baikal-Yenisei Siberia, Neolithic, Kitoi mortuary tradition, burials, fishing, composite fishhook

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