«BULLETIN OF THE IRKUTSK STATE UNIVERSITY. GEOARCHAEOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, AND ANTHROPOLOGY SERIES»
ISSN 2227-2380 (Print)

List of issues > «Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series». 2018. Vol. 25

Nizhneudinsk Buryats in 19th Century: Ethnic Structure and Resettlement

Author(s)
B. Z. Nanzatov
Abstract

This paper continues a series of works on the ethnic composition of the Buryat population using a case study of Buryat administrative and territorial units, national jurisdictions of the Russian empire in 19th century. In the structure of Buryat departments, the least studied administrative unit was Nizhneudinskaya zemlitsa (literally “Nizhneudinsk small land”). It was formed in 17th century on the westernmost periphery of the “Bratskaya land”, on the territory of the Buryat tribe of Ashibagat and its tax-paying population, including population spoken on Turkic, Tung, Samoyedic and Yenisei languages. Nizhneudinskaya zemlitsa has undergone the most large-scale reduction of the territory and the outflow of the indigenous population in the process of implementing imperial relocation projects of all the Buryat departments. Mass migrations of Ashibagats in the middle and in the second half of the 17th century also contributed to the reduction of Buryats in this territory. The Uda Ashibagat became the basis of the Khariad population of North-Western Mongolia. The other part of the Ashibagats migrated to the Chikoi basin, within the borders of Russia, where the Ashibagat administrative clan was formed. Also, one of four Buryat Cavalry Cossack regiments was formed with Ashibagats. On the other hand, the construction of one of the sections of the Big Postal Siberian Route, also called Moscowian route from Tomsk through Krasnoyarsk and Nizhneudinsk to Irkutsk attracted the formation of a large Tulun rural municipality with the Russian peasant population in the second half of the 18th century. Thereby to this construction, most of the steppe areas, near this road, were populated by Russians. The Buryat population was forced to migrate up the rivers to the taiga zone. Most of Nizhneudinskaya Zemlitsa former territories moved under Russian peasant and the Cossack settlements. Author's map of Nizhneudinskaya Zemlitsa reflects the dynamics of changes in the boundaries of this Buryat department in the 19th century. The ethnic composition of the remaining not numerous Buryat population was heterogeneous and included not only the Buryat tribes, but also the Kyshtyms who were assimilated. In the process of assimilation, the former tax-paying population of the Buryats became not only the part of Buryats and Tofalar, but also the old-time Russian population. Studies of the ethnic composition of Nizhneudinsk Buryats allowed to prove the Mongolian origin of a number of ethnic groups – Korchun, Khurdut, Kara-Darhan, whose origin was previously considered Yenisei or Samoyedic. A number of ethnonyms require further research.

About the Authors

Nanzatov Bair Zoriktoevich, Candidate of Sciences (History), Senior researcher, Institute of Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies SB RAS; 6, Sakhiyanova st., Ulan-Ude, 670047, Russian Federation, e-mail: nanzatov@yandex.ru

For citation

Nanzatov B. Z. Nizhneudinsk Buryats in 19th Century: Ethnic Structure and Resettlement. Bulletin of the Irkutsk State University. Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series. 2018, Vol. 25, pp. 128–142. https://doi.org/10.26516/2227-2380.2018.25.128 (in Russ.)

Keywords
Buryats, Ashibagat tribe, ethnic history, Uda river, allocation, migrations, ethnonym, linguistic analysis, mapping
UDC
39(571.54)+346.231
DOI
https://doi.org/10.26516/2227-2380.2018.25.128
References

Abaeva Yu. D. Govor nizhneudinskikh buryat segodnya [Dialect of Nizhneudinsk Buryats today]. Filologicheskie nauki. Voprosy teorii i praktiki [Philological sciences. Questions of theory and practice]. 2016, Is. 12 (66), Part 2, pp. 59–62. (In Russ.)

Aiyzhy E. V., KonguA. A. Rodoplemennye gruppy tuvintsev Todzhinskogo raiona respubliki Tuva na sovremennom etape (po materialam polevykh issledovanii) [Clan and Tribal groups of Tuvans of Todzha region of the Republic of Tuva at the present stage stage (on materials of field research)]. Vestnik Chuvashskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta im. I. Ya. Yakovleva [Bulletin of I. Ya. Yakovlev Chuvash State Pedagogical University]. 2013, Is. 4–1 (80), pp. 3–10. (In Russ.)

Anufriev A. V. Istoriya sibirskogo kazachestva [History of the Siberian Cossacks]. Irkutsk, 1995, 23 p. (In Russ.)

Aristov N. A. Zametki ob etnicheskom sostave tyurkskikh plemen i narodnostei i svedeniya ob ikh chislennosti [Notes about ethnic composition of Turkic tribes and peoples and information on their numbers]. Zhivaya starina. Periodicheskoe izdanie otdeleniya etnografii Russkogo geograficheskogo obshchestva [Live Antiquity. Periodical edition of the Department of Ethnography of the Russian Geographical Society]. St. Petersburg, 1896, Is. 3–4, pp. 277–456. (In Russ.)

Asalkhanov A. I. O buryatskikh rodakh v XIX veke [About Buryat clans in 19th century]. Etnograficheskii sbornik [Ethnographic digest]. Ulan-Ude, 1960, Vol.1, pp. 68–83. (In Russ.)

Bakhrushin S. V. Nauchnye trudy IV. Ocherki po istorii Krasnoyarskogo uezda v XVI–XVII vv. [Scientific works 4. Essays on the history of Krasnoyarsk district in the XVI–XVII centuries]. Moscow, 1959, 260 p. (In Russ.)

Castren M. A. Reiseberichte und Briefe. Als den jahren 1815–1849. St. Petersburg, 1856, 527 s. (In German)

Darbeeva A. A. Predvaritelnye dannye o yazyke nizhneudinskikh buryat [Preliminary data on the language of Nizhneudinsk Buryats]. Trudy Kompleksnogo nauchno-issledovatelskogo instituta [Proceedings of the Buryat complex research Institute]. Ulan-Ude,1960, Vol. 3, pp. 118–126. (In Russ.)

Darbeeva A.A. Vliyanie dvuyazychiya na razvitie izolirovannogo dialekta: na materiale mongolskikh yazykov [The influence of bilingualism on the development of an isolated dialect: on the material of the Mongolian languages]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1978, 210 p. (In Russ.)

Dolgikh B. O. Rodovoi i plemennoi sostav narodov Sibiri v 17 veke [Clan and Tribal composition of the peoples of Siberia during the 17th century]. Moscow, AS USSR Publ., 1960, 621 p. (In Russ.)

Karnaukhov V. N. Ot Udinskoi zemlitsy do zemli Nizhneudinskoi [From Udinskaya small land to land of Nizhneudinsk]. Krasnoyarsk, Sitall Publ., 2015, 429 p. (In Russ.)

Karta Nizhneudinskogo okruga Irkutskoi gubernii [Map of the Nizhneudinsk district of the Irkutsk province]. Materialy po issledovaniyu zemlepolzovaniya i khozyaystvennogo byta selskogo naseleniya Irkutskoi i Yeniseiskoi gubernii [Materials on the study of land use and economic life of the rural population of the Irkutsk and Yenisei provinces]. Irkutsk, 1889. (In Russ.)

Khangalov M. N. Sobranie sochinenii [Collected Works]. Ulan-Ude, Buryat Book Publ., 1959, Vol. 2, 443 p. (In Russ.)

Larionov D. D. Ocherk ekonomicheskoi statistiki Irkutskoi gubernii: statistika selskokhozyaistvennaya [Essay on the economic statistics of the Irkutsk province: agricultural statistics]. Irkutsk, 1870, 380 p. (In Russ.)

Nanzatov B. Z. K etnogenezu tsaatanov, darkhatov i khubsugulskikh uryankhaitsev (po materialam etnonimii) [Toward the ethnogenesis of Tsaatan, Darkhat and Hubsugul Uryankhay peoples (on materials of ethnonyms)]. Mir Tsentralnoi Azii-2 [World of Central Asia-2]. Ulan-Ude, 2008, pp. 51–56. (In Russ.)

Nanzatov B. Z. Balaganskie buryaty v XIX veke: etnicheskii sostav i rasselenie [Balagansk Buryats in 19thCentury: Ethnic Composition and Settlement]. Izvestiya Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya Geoarkheologiya. Etnologiya. Antropologiya [Bulletin of the Irkutsk State University. Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series]. 2018, Vol. 23, pp. 140–163. (In Russ.)

Nanzatov B. Z., Sodnompilova M. M. Tunkinskie buryaty v XIX v.: etnicheskii sostav i rasselenie [Tunka Buryats in 19th century: ethnic composition and settlement]. Vestnik arkheologii, antropologii i etnografii [Bulletin of Archaeology, Anthropology and Ethnography]. 2017a, Is. 3 (38), pp. 131–142. (In Russ.)

Nanzatov B. Z., Sodnompilova M. M. Zakamenskie buryaty v XIX v.: etnicheskii sostav i rasselenie [Zaqamna Buryats in 19th Century: Ethnic Composition and Settlement]. Izvestiya Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya Geoarkheologiya. Etnologiya. Antropologiya [Bulletin of the Irkutsk State University. Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series]. 2017b, Vol. 19, pp. 151–171. (In Russ.)

Nyambuu Kh. Mongolyn ugsaatny zgy. Udirtgal [Mongolian Ethnography. Introduction]. Ulaanbaatar, 1992, 198 p. (In Mongol)

Patkanov S. K. Statisticheskie dannye, pokazyvayushchie plemennoi sostav naseleniya Sibiri, yazyk i rody inorodtsev (na osnovanii dannykh spetsialnoi razrabotki materiala perepisi 1897 g.) [Statistical data showing the tribal composition of the population of Siberia, language and kind of foreigners (on the basis of a special development of the material to the 1897 census)]. Zapiski Imperatorskogo Russkogo Geograficheskogo Obshchestva po otdeleniyu statistiki; Vyp.3 [Notes of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in the Department of statistics; Vol. 3]. St. Petersburg, 1912, Vol. 3: Irkutskaya guberniya, Zabaikalskaya, Amurskaya, Yakutskaya, Primorskaya oblasti i ostrov Sakhalin [Irkutsk region, Transbaikal, Amur, Sakha, Primorye region and Island of Sakhalin], 708 p. (In Russ.)

Popov I. Kazachii stanitsy na reke Ude [Cossack villages on the Uda River]. Larionov D. D. (ed.). Pamyatnaya knizhka Irkutskoi gubernii na 1881 g. [Memorial book of the Irkutsk province in 1881]. Irkutsk, 1881, pp. 137–146. (In Russ.)

Rassadin I. V. Formirovanie tofalarskogo etnosa [Formation of the Tofalar ethnos]. Vestnik Buryatskogo nauchnogo tsentra SO RAN [Bulletin of Buryat scientific center SB RAS]. 2011, Is. 2, pp. 112–119. (In Russ.)

Rassadin V. I. Stanovlenie govor anizhneudinskikh buryat [Formation of dialect of the Nizhneudinsk Buryats]. Ulan-Ude, BSC SB RAS Publ., 1999, 160 p. (In Russ.)

Ritter K. Zemlevedenie Azii. Geografiya stran, vkhodyashchikh v sostav Aziatskoi Rossii ili pogranichnykh s neyu: Vostochnaya Sibir, ozero Baikal i Pribaikalskie strany i step Gobi. Sostavili po porucheniyu Imperatorskogo Russkogo Geograficheskogo Obshchestva: P. P. Semenov, I. D. Cherskii i G. G. f. Petts. Ch. 2. Obshchee obozrenie Baikalskikh gor i Baikalskogo ozera [Physical Geography of Asia. Geography of the Countries Entering into the Constitution of Asiatic Russia or Bordering thereon: East Siberia, Lake Baikal and Transbaikalia, and the Gobi steppes. Made on behalf of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society: P. P. Semenov, I. D. Chersky and G. G. f. Petts. Part 2. General overview of the Baikal Mountains and Lake Baikal]. St. Petersburg, Printing House of V. Bezobrazova and K., 1895, Vol. 6, 630 p. (In Russ.)

Sanzheev G. D. Foneticheskie osobennosti govora nizhneudinskikh buryat [Phonetic features of dialect of the Nizhneudinsk Buryats]. Materialy komissii po issledovaniyu Mongolskoi i Tannu-Tuvinskoi Narodnoi respubliki i Buryatskoi ASSR [Materials of the commission for the study of the Mongolian and Tannu-Tuva People's Republics and the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic]. Leningrad, AS USSR Publ., 1930a, Is. 8, 11 p. (In Russ.)

Sanzheev G. D. Darkhaty. Etnograficheskii otchet o poezdke v Mongoliyu v 1927 godu [Darkhats Ethnographic report on a trip to Mongolia in 1927]. Leningrad, AS USSR Publ., 1930b, 64 p. (In Russ.)

Sherstova L. I. Tyurki i russkie v Yuzhnoi Sibiri [Turkic peoples and Russians in South Siberia]. Novosibirsk, IAE SB RAS Publ., 2005, 310 p. (In Russ.)

Skrynnikova T. D. Identifikatsionnye praktiki buryat Rossiiskoi imperii [Identification practices of the Buryats of the Russian Empire]. Sibirskii sbornik-4: Grani sotsialnogo: Antropologicheskie perspektivy issledovaniya sotsialnykh otnoshenii i kultury [Siberian collection-4: The Edge of the Social: Anthropological perspectives of the study of social relations and culture]. St. Petersburg, 2014, pp. 591–600. (In Russ.)

Sydenova R. P. Nizhneudinskie buryaty kak etnoterritorialnaya gruppa [Nizhneudinsk Buryats as an ethnoterritorial group]. Etnologicheskie issledovaniya [Ethnological studies]. Ulan-Ude, 2000, Is. 1, pp. 94–109. (In Russ.)

Tsydendambaev Ts. B. Buryatskie istoricheskie khroniki i rodoslovnye [Buryat historical Chronicles and Genealogies]. Ulan-Ude, Buryat book Publ., 1972, 662 p. (In Russ.)

Vorobiev V. V. Formirovanie naseleniya Vostochnoi Sibiri (geograficheskie osobennosti i problemy) [Formation of the population of Eastern Siberia (geographical features and problems)]. Novosibirsk, Nauka, 1975, 260 p. (In Russ.)

Vorotnikov I. I. Opisanie Bratskoi volosti [Description of Bratskaya volost]. Tsirkuliar po Moskovskomu uchetnomu okrugu [Circular for the Moscow Accounting District]. 1808, Vol. 6, pp. 25–29. (In Russ.)

Werner G. K. Kottskii yazyk [Kott language]. Rostov-on-don, Rostov University Publ., 1990, 409 p. (In Russ.)


Full text (russian)