«BULLETIN OF THE IRKUTSK STATE UNIVERSITY. GEOARCHAEOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, AND ANTHROPOLOGY SERIES»
ISSN 2227-2380 (Print)

List of issues > «Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series». 2016. Vol. 18

The Central Asian Nomads of Bronze and Early Iron Ages in the Baikal Region (Reasons for the Appearance in the Region)

Author(s)
A. D. Tsibiktarov
Abstract
The article is devoted to issues related to the Slab Grave Culture in the Baikal region. The author presents historiographic review in which the views of various researchers from the late 19th century up to date are exposed, as well as the reasons for the migration of the population of Slab Grave Culture to this region, the historical interpretation of materials of these monuments. The author forwards the view that the emergence of the slab graves in the Baikal region was not the result oft he large-scale migration of this culture population from the Transbaikalia due to the political events (Xiongnu expansion to the territories inhabited by the Slab Grave Culture population), the pressure of surplus population on the productive forces and the changes in the natural conditions in Transbaikalia and Mongolia in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages. The author argues that the resettlement of the population of Slab Grave Culture in small groups to certain isolated areas of the Baikal region with the purpose of establishment of economic ties and share of production facilities (metallurgy of bronze, iron, cattle breeding) with the local population in exchange of products of hunting and fishing.
Keywords
Baikal region, Bronze Age, Early Iron Age, slab graves, dissemination of monuments, dating, historical interpretation, economy, exchange
UDC
930.26(571.54+571.53+517.3)
References

Agapitov N. N. Pribaikalskie drevnosti: izobrazheniya na utesakh Baikala, gorodishcha Irkutskoi gubernii [The Cis-Baikal ancientry. Picture on the rocks of Lake Baikal, ancient settlement of the Irkutsk province]. Izvestiya Vostochno-Sibirskogo otdela Russkogo geograficheskogo obshchestva [Bulletin of East-Siberian Department of Russian geographical society]. Irkutsk, 1881, Vol. XII, Is. 4–5, pp. 1–23. (In Russ.)

Volkov V. V. Bronzovyi i rannii zheleznyi veka Severnoi Mongolii [Bronze Age and Early Iron Age of Northern Mongolia]. Ulan-Bator, Academy of Science of Mongolian People’s Republic, 1967, 148 p. (In Russ.)

Goryunova O. I. Rannii zheleznyi vek na territorii Predbaikaliya (sovremennoe sostoyanie problemy) [Early iron age on the territory of Cis-Baikal region (current state of the problem)]. Etnokulturnye protsessy v regione Vostochnoi Sibiri i ikh sotsialno-kulturnaya dinamika [Ethno-cultural processes in Eastern Siberia and socio-cultural dynamics]. Ulan-Ude, 1993, pp. 76–80. (In Russ.)

Goryunova O. I., Vorobieva G. A. Osobennosti prirodnoi obstanovki i materialnaya kultura Priolkhoniya v golotsene [Features of the natural environment and material culture of the Olkhon area in the Holocene]. Paleoekonomika Sibiri [Paleoeconomic of Siberia]. Novosibirsk, Nauka Publ., 1986, pp. 40–54. (In Russ.)

Grishin Yu. S. Pamyatniki neolita, bronzovogo i rannego zheleznogo vekov lesostepnogo Zabaikaliya [Sites of Neolithic, Bronze Age and Early Iron Age of forest-steppe of Trans-baikalia]. Moscow, Nauka, 1981, 204 p. (In Russ.)

Grishin Yu. S. Nekotorye voprosy o pamyatnikakh kultury plitochnykh mogil v Predbaikale i na Baikale [Some questions about sites of culture of the tile graves in Cis-Baikal region and on Lake Baikal]. Kultury i pamyatniki bronzovogo i rannego zheleznogo vekov Zabaikaliya i Mongolii [The culture and sites of Bronze and Early Iron Ages of Trans-baikalia and Mongolia]. Ulan-Ude, Buryat scientific center SB RAS Publ., 1995, pp. 63–64. (In Russ.)

Dashibalov B. B. Plitochnye mogily ostrova Olkhon [Tile graves of Olkhon Island]. Kultury i pamyatniki bronzovogo i rannego zheleznogo vekov Zabaikaliya i Mongolii [The culture and sites of Bronze and Early Iron Ages of Transbaikalia and Mongolia]. Ulan-Ude, Buryat scientific center SB RAS Publ., 1995, pp. 79–83. (In Russ.)

Derevyanko A. P. Drevnie kultury Mongolii [Ancient cultures of Mongolia]. Arkheologiya Zarubezhnoi Azii [Archaeology of Foreign Asia]. Moscow, Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1986, pp. 234–250. (In Russ.)

Dikov N. N. Bronzovyi vek Zabaikaliya [The Bronze Age of the Transbaikalia]. Ulan-Ude, Buryat book publishing house, 1958, 180 p. (In Russ.)

Zaitsev M. A., Svinin V. V. Mogilnik rannego zheleznogo veka Khuzhir II (o. Olkhon na Baikale) [The burial ground of the Early Iron Age of Khuzhir II (Olkhon Island on the Lake Baikal)]. Arkheologiya i etnografiya Vostochnoi Sibiri [Archaeology and Ethnography of Eastern Siberia]. Irkutsk, 1978, pp. 39–41. (In Russ.)

Kichigin D. E. Pozdnii bronzovyi i rannii zheleznyi veka Severo-Zapadnogo poberezhiya ozera Baikal [The Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages of North-Western coast of Lake Baikal. Cand. of histor. sci. syn. diss.]. Vladivostok, 2012, 17 p. (In Russ.)

Novgorodova E. A. Drevnyaya Mongoliya [Ancient Mongolia]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1989, 383 p. (In Russ.)

Okladnikov A. P. Novye dannye po drevneishei istorii Vnutrennei Mongolii [New data on the ancient history of Inner Mongolia]. Vestnik drevnei istorii [Journal of Ancient History]. 1951, Is. 4, pp. 162–174. (In Russ.)

Okladnikov A. P. Istoriya Yakutskoi ASSR [The History of the Yakut ASSR]. Moscow, Leningrad, USSR Academy of Sciences Publ., 1955a, Vol. 1, 432 p. (In Russ.)

Okladnikov A. P. Neolit i bronzovyi vek Pribaikaliya. Glazkovskaya kultura [Neolithic and Bronze Age of the Cis-Baikal region. Glazkovskaya culture]. Moscow, Leningrad, USSR Academy of Sciences Publ., 1955b, part III, 374 p., (Materials on the History and Archaeolo-gy, Is. 43) (In Russ.)

Okladnikov A. P. Drevnee naselenie Sibiri i ego kultura [Ancient population of Siberia and its culture]. Narody Sibiri [The Peoples of Siberia]. Moscow, Leningrad, USSR Academy of Sciences Publ., 1956, pp. 21–107. (In Russ.)

Okladnikov A. P. Novoe v izuchenii drevneishikh kultur Mongolii (po rabotam 1960 g.) [New in the study of ancient cultures of Mongolia (the research of 1960)]. Sovetskaya etnografiya [Soviet Ethnography]. 1962, Is. 1, pp. 83–90. (In Russ.)

Svinin V. V. Tyrganskii mogilnik [The Tyrganskiy burial ground]. Uchenye zapiski Irkutskogo oblastnogo muzeya kraevedeniya [Proceedings of the Irkutsk Regional Museum of Local Lore]. Irkutsk, 1971, Is. 4, part 1, pp. 140–144. (In Russ.)

Tivanenko A. V. Drevnee naskalnoe iskusstvo Buryatii [Ancient rock art of Buryatia]. Novosibirsk, Nauka, 1990, 208 p. (In Russ.)

Tivanenko A. V., Tsybiktarov A. D. Severobaikalskii ochag selenginskikh petroglifov [The North Baikal center of Selenga petroglyphs]. Arkheologicheskie otkrytiya 1978 g. [Archaeological discoveries of 1978]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1979, pp. 276–277. (In Russ.)

Turkin G. V. Lesostepnoe Predbaikalie v kontse II – I tys. do n.e. (po materialam pogrebalno-pominalnykh kompleksov) [Forest-steppe Cis-Baikal region in the late II – I thousand BC (on materials of funeral complexes). Cand. of histor. sci. syn. diss.]. Vladivostok, 2003, 24 p. (In Russ.)

Turkin G. V. Pogrebalnaya obryadnost naseleniya Predbaikaliya v kontse II – I tys. do nashei ery (k voprosu ob etnokulturnoi situatsii) [The funeral rites of the population of the Cis-Baikal region in the late II – I thousand BC (the question of ethno-cultural situation)]. Tsentralnaya Aziya i Pribaikalie v drevnosti [Central Asia and the Cis-Baikal region in ancient times]. Ulan-Ude, Buryat State University, 2004, Is. 2, pp. 82–93. (In Russ.)

Khamzina E. A. Plitochnyi mogilnik v Barguzinskoi doline [Tile burial ground in the Barguzin valley]. Po sledam drevnikh kultur Zabaikaliya [On the traces of ancient cultures of Transbaikalia]. Novosibirsk, Nauka, 1983, pp. 75–85. (In Russ.)

Kharinskii A. V. O poyavlenii skotovodstva v Predbaikalie [On the emergence of pastoralism in Cis-Baikal region]. Tretii istoricheskie chteniya pamyati M. P. Gryaznova [The third historical readings in memory of M. P. Gryaznov]. Omsk, Omsk State University Publ., 1995, part II, pp. 95–98. (In Russ.)

Kharinskii A. V. Zapadnoe poberezhie ozera Baikal v I tys. do n.e. – I tys. n.e. [The West coast of Lake Baikal in I Millennium BC – I Millennium AD]. Izvestiya laboratorii drevnikh tekhnologii [Reports of the Laboratory of ancient technologies]. Irkutsk, Irkutsk State Technology University Publ., 2005, Is. 3, pp. 198–215. (In Russ.)

Kharinskii A. V., Zaitsev M. A. Issledovanie plitochnykh mogil Priolkhoniya [A study of tile graves of the Olkhon region]. Obozrenie rezultatov polevykh i laboratornykh issledovanii arkheologov, etnografov i antropologov Sibiri i Dalnego Vostoka v 1993 g. [A review of the results of field and laboratory research of archaeologists, ethnographers and anthropologists of Siberia and Far East in 1993]. Novosibirsk, Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS Publ., 1995, pp. 195–197. (In Russ.)

Kharinskii A. V., Zaitsev M. A., Svinin V. V. Plitochnye mogily Priolkhoniya [Tile graves of the Olkhon region]. Ulan-Ude, Buryat scientific center SB RAS Publ., 1995, pp. 64–78. (In Russ.)

Khlobystin L. P., Studzitskaya S. V. Bronzovyi vek Vostochnoi Sibiri [The Bronze Age of Eastern Siberia]. Epokha bronzy lesnoi polosy USSR [The Bronze Age forest belt of USSR]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1987, pp. 327–350. (Arkheologiya SSSR [Archaeology of the USSR]) (In Russ.)

Khoroshikh P. P. Issledovaniya kamennogo i zheleznogo veka Irkutskogo kraya [Study the Stone and Iron Ages of Irkutsk region]. Izvestiya Biologo-geograficheskogo nauchno-issledovatelskogo Instituta pri Irkutskom gosudarstvennom universitete [Proceedings of Biological and Geographical scientific research Institute of Irkutsk State University]. Irkutsk, 1924, Vol. 1, Is. 1, 51 p. (In Russ.)

Tsybiktarov A. D. Otchet o polevykh issledovaniyakh letom 1978 g. na Severnom Baikale [Report on field studies in the summer of 1978 in Northern Baikal]. Ulan-Ude, 1979, 13 p. (In Russ.)

Tsybiktarov A. D. Kultura plitochnykh mogil Zabaikaliya i Mongolii [The culture of the tile graves of Transbaikalia and Mongolia. Cand. of histor. sci. syn. diss.]. Moscow, 1989, 24 p. (In Russ.)

Tsybiktarov A. D. Kultura plitochnykh mogil Zabaikaliya i Mongolii [The culture of the tile graves of Transbaikalia and Mongolia]. Ulan-Ude, Buryat State University Publ., 1998, 288 p. (In Russ.)

Tsybiktarov A. D. Buryatiya v drevnosti [Buryatia in ancient times]. Ulan-Ude, Buryat State University Publ., 1999, 264 p. (In Russ.)

Tsybiktarov A. D. Tsentralnaya Aziya v epokhu bronzy i rannego zheleza (II – pervaya polovina I tys. do n. e.) [Central Asia in the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age (II – the first half I thousand BC). Doc. of histor. sci. syn. diss.]. Novosibirsk, 2003, 49 p. (In Russ.)

Tsybiktarov A. D. Drevnie migratsii v Tsentralnoi Azii v epokhu bronzy i rannego zheleza: prichiny i posledstviya [Ancient migrations in Central Asia in the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age: causes and consequences]. Drevnie kultury Mongolii i Baikalskoi Sibiri [Ancient cultures of Mongolia and Baikal Siberia]. Ulan-Bator, Mongol State University Publ., 2012, Is. 3, Vol. 1, pp. 283–292. (In Russ.)

Tsybiktarov A. D. Etapy vzaimootnoshenii naseleniya kultury plitochnykh mogil i kultury khereksurov v Tsentralnoi Azii v «epokhu velikogo pereseleniya narodov» bronzovogo veka [The stages of relationship of the population of tile graves culture and the khereksur culture in Central Asia in the "era of the great migration of peoples" of the Bronze Age]. Drevnie kultury Mongolii i Baikalskoi Sibiri [Ancient cultures of Mongolia and Baikal Siberia]. Chita, 2013, part 1, pp. 360–373. (In Russ.)


Full text (russian)