«BULLETIN OF THE IRKUTSK STATE UNIVERSITY. GEOARCHAEOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, AND ANTHROPOLOGY SERIES»
ISSN 2227-2380 (Print)

List of issues > «Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series». 2017. Vol. 20

Images of the North in Buryats' Impressions: Contamination of Mythological and Real

Author(s)
М. M. Sodnompilova
Abstract
A special interest is shown of how the traditional world view bearer perceives and views the space, reflected in the different versions of the world view of the ethnos. The study of perception and vision of space allows to select from conjunction of the irrational and the rational character information based on real people's knowledge about the surrounding world. The article deals with the range of images, values and beliefs in the Buryat worldview related to the North. It was found that they accumulate images endowed with negative values. This is an image of the underworld which is represented by markers such as cold dark sea, desert land, ice, snow, cold wind. This is a residence of evil gods and spirits, a place where diseases arise and then spread around the world. Such an example of the other world localization is a replica of rational human knowledge about the surrounding area. It is actual not only for Buryats, but for the other Mongolian ethnic groups. An exception is the image of the afterlife in the form of heavenly palaces for the souls of warriors and leaders, known primarily among the Western Buryats. The existence of transcendent views of the world in real geographical space is distinguished in the worldview of different Buryat ethnic groups in parallel of this synthesis image of the north. As a general rule, its boundary is related to the periphery of the assimilated space. Eastern Buryats could consider that Lake Baikal is the edge of the earth. Lena River was the border of another world for many Western Buryats. Image of a horse takes special place in the representations of the Buryats associated with the Lena river. This image is implicit in the name of the river, in the mythological notions of its deity Azhirai-bukhe. The motif of the river-horse, inherent in the Turkic tradition, and reflected in the Buryat myth-making, is one of the many evidences of the presence of the Turkic substratum in the ethnogenesis of the Buryats. Representations of the northern lands research allowed to determine contacts of early Buryat tribes with the "forest" nations – Yakuts, Evenks, who left their marks in the Buryat world view.
Keywords
world view, image of the north, underworld, river, Buryat pantheon
UDC
39+398.4
References

Abai Geser. Buryatskii geroicheskii epos [Abai Geser. Buryat Heroic Epos]. Moscow, Vostochnaya literatura Publ., 1995, 526 p. (In Russ.)

Alekseenko Ye. A. Rechnoi komponent v kulture narodov Eniseiskogo basseina [River component in the culture of peoples of Yenisei basin]. Reki i narody Sibiri [Rivers and peoples of Siberia]. St. Petersburg, Nauka Publ., 2007, pp. 55–87. (In Russ.)

Baradieva S. S. B., Sundueva E. V. Metaforizatsiya v gidrograficheskoi terminologii mongolskikh yazykov [Metaphorization in the hydrographic terminology of Mongolian languages]. Vestnik Severo-Vostochnogo federalnogo universiteta im. M. K. Ammosova [Bulletin of M. K. Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University]. 2014, Vol. 11, Is. 3, pp. 77–82. (In Russ.)

Berezkin Yu. E. Mify Starogo i Novogo Sveta: iz Starogo v Novyi Svet: mify narodov mira [Myths of the Old and New Worlds: from the Old to the New World: myths of the peoples of the world]. Moscow, Astrel Publ., 2009, 446 p. (In Russ.)

Dampilova L. S. Shamanskie pesnopeniya buryat: simvolika i poetika [Shamanic hymns of the Buryats: symbolic and poetic]. Ulan-Ude, BSC SB RAS Publ., 2005, 248 p. (In Russ.)

Galdanova G. R. Dolamaistskie verovaniya buryat [Pre-Lamaist Belief System of the Buryats]. Novosibirsk, Nauka Publ., 1987, 115 p. (In Russ.)

Khangalov M. N. Sobranie sochinenii [Collected works]. Ulan-Ude, Buryat Book Publ., 1958, Vol. 1, 550 p. (In Russ.)

Khangalov M. N. Sobranie sochinenii [Collected works]. Ulan-Ude, Buryat Book Publ., 1960, Vol. 3, 420 p. (In Russ.)

Lvova E. L., Oktyabrskaya I. V., Sagalaev A. M., Usmanova M. S. Traditsionnoe mirovozzrenie tyurkov Yuzhnoi Sibiri. Prostranstvo i vremya. Veshchnyi mir [Traditional worldview of Turkic peoples of South Siberia. Space and Time. Thing World]. Novosibirsk, Nauka Publ., 1988, 225 p. (In Russ.)

Lvova E. L., Oktyabrskaya I. V., Sagalaev A. M., Usmanova M. S. Traditsionnoe mirivozzrenie tyurkov Yuzhnoi Sibiri. Chelovek. Obshchestvo [Traditional worldview of Turkic peoples of South Siberia. Human. Society]. Novosibirsk, Nauka Publ., 1989, 243 p. (In Russ.)

Manzhigeev I. A. K voprosu o protsesse otmiraniya perezhitkov shamanstva u buryat [On the process of withering away of the relicts of shamanism among Buryats]. Etnograficheskii sbornik BKNI SO AN SSSR [Ethnographic digest BCSRI SB AS USSR]. Ulan-Ude, 1961, Vol. 2, pp. 9–19. (In Russ.)

Meletinskii E. M. Paleoaziatskii mifologicheskii epos [Paleoasian mythological epic]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1979, 228 p. (In Russ.)

Melkheev M. N. Toponimika Buryatii. Istoriya, sistema i proiskhozhdenie geograficheskikh nazvanii [Toponymy of Buryatia. History, system and origin of geographical names]. Ulan-Ude, Buryat Book Publ., 1969, 184 p. (In Russ.)

Mitroshkina A. G. K etimologii gidronima Lena [Toward the etymology of hydronym Lena]. Onomastika Vostoka [Onomastic of the Orient]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1980, pp. 130–131. (In Russ.)

Nanzatov B. Z. Verkholenskie buryaty v XIX v.: etnicheskii sostav i rasselenie [Upper Lena Buryats in the 19th Century (Ethnic Composition and Settlement)]. Izvestiya Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo universisteta. Seriya. Geoarkheologiya. Etnologiya. Antropologiya. [The Bulletin of the Irkutsk State University. Series Geoarchaeology. Ethnology. Anthropology]. 2016, Vol. 16, pp. 103–124. (In Russ.)

Neklyudov S. Yu. Geroicheskii epos mongolskikh narodov [Heroic epos of Mongolian peoples]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1984, 309 p. (In Russ.)

Okladnikov A. P. Istoriya Yakutii [History of Yakutia]. Yakutsk, Yakutskgosizdat Publ., 1949, Vol. 1, 438 p. (In Russ.)

Okladnikov A. P. Istoriya i kultura Buryatii [History and Culture of Buryatia]. Ulan-Ude, Buryat Book Publ., 1976, 458 p. (In Russ.)

Pavlinskaya L. R. Reki Sibiri [Rivers of Siberia]. Reki i narody Sibiri [Rivers and peoples of Siberia]. St. Petersburg, Nauka Publ., 2007, pp. 18–55. (In Russ.)

Podgorbunskii V. I. Religioznye i kosmologicheskie predstavleniya u buryat, yakutov i tungusov (polevye materialy 1913–1922 gg.) [Religious and cosmological views of the Buryats, Yakuts and Tungus (field materials 1913–1922)]. Problemy etnicheskoi istorii i kultury tyurko-mongolskikh narodov Yuzhnoi Sibiri i sopredelnykh territorii [Problems of ethnic history and culture of the Turkic-Mongolian peoples of Southern Siberia and adjacent territories]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1996, Vol. 2, pp. 221–241. (In Russ.)

Propp V. Ya. Istoricheskie korni volshebnoi skazki [Historic roots of magic tales]. Leningrad, LSU Publ., 1986, 364 p. (In Russ.)

Seroshevskii V. L. Yakuty. Opyt etnograficheskogo issledovaniya [The Yakuts. Experience of ethnographic research.]. Moscow, Moscow typography № 2, 1993, 736 p. (In Russ.)

Skorodumova L. G. Mongolskii yazyk: obrazy mira [Mongolian language: images of the world]. Ulan-Bator, Bembi San Publ., 2004, 327 p. (In Russ.)

Skrynnikova T. D. Kharizma i vlast v epokhu Chingis-khana [Charisma and power in the epoch of Genghis Khan]. St. Petersburg, Eurasia Publ., 2013, 384 p. (In Russ.)

Sodnompilova M. M. Atmosfernye yavleniya v kontseptualnoi i yazykovoi versiyakh kartiny mira mongolskikh narodov [Atmospheric phenomena in the conceptual and language versions of the picture of the world of Mongolian peoples]. V mire traditsionnoi kultury buryat [In the world of traditional culture of the Buryats]. Ulan-Ude, BSC SB RAS Publ., 2007, pp. 152–202. (In Russ.)

Sundueva E. V. Imitatsiya zvukov nezhivoi prirody sredstvami kornevogo soglasnogo l v mongolskikh yazykakh [Simulation of sounds of inanimate nature by means of a root consonant l in Mongolian languages]. Rossiysko-mongolskii lingvisticheskii sbornik [Russian-Mongolian Linguistic Digest]. Moscow, Kancler Publ., 2015, pp. 476–485. (In Russ.)

Tsybikdorzhiev D. V. Proiskhozhdenie drevnemongolskikh voinskikh kultov (po folklorno-etnograficheskim materialam buryat) [The origin of the ancient Mongolian military cults (according to folk-ethnographic materials of the Buryats)]. Ulan-Ude, BSC SB RAS Publ., 2003, 290 p. (In Russ.)

Zhamtsarano Ts. Putevye dnevniki 1903–1907 gg. [Travel Diaries 1903–1907]. Ulan-Ude, BSC SB RAS Publ., 2001, 382 p. (In Russ.)


Full text (russian)