ISSN 2227-2380 (Print)

List of issues > «Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series». 2017. Vol. 19

Reindeer Herding of the Far East Indigenous Peoples in Modern Conditions

V. A. Turaev
The paper examines the process of transformation of the reindeer economy of the indigenous peoples of the Far East in the conditions of market economy. We analyzed public sentiment related to transformation processes, fatigue from the monotony of state farm life, the impoverishment of the population as a result of reforms, hopes for a speedy enrichment through privatization, which greatly contributed to the growth of prices for products of reindeer husbandry on the international market, the impact of mass media, advocating the return to a traditional way of life, as an instrument of "national revival", etc. The article shows the regional features of reorganization of reindeer herding state farms to private farms, national enterprises, cooperatives, family and neighbors-territorial communities, their subsequent legal evolution and causes of liquidation (the underdevelopment of the domestic market, the disparity of prices for the products of agriculture and industry, high transportation tariffs on the export of products to consumers, etc.). The features of the management of reindeer husbandry in the new conditions at the Federal, regional and local levels, financial support for reindeer herding and reindeer herders families from the Federal and regional budgets, the formation of the legal basis of reindeer husbandry forms of ownership of reindeer, formed from the divestiture of the industry, modern conditions of doing deer management, labor and life of the reindeer, as reindeer herding enterprises of various organizational-legal forms, the problems faced by reindeer herding in the Far East at the present time. Based on the analysis the conclusion is given about the absence of state-legal rehabilitation of reindeer herding as agriculture in the Far East. Out of six regions, which have historically evolved reindeer, in its economic function it is preserved today only in Chukotka, small spots of commodity reindeer husbandry may appear under certain conditions in some areas of the Kamchatka region. In most regions of the Far East reindeer is bracketed by a market economy. Efforts made by local authorities to preserve the remnants of Soviet legacy rich in reindeer herding, in most cases are not dictated by the desire to make the industry economically efficient, but by the desire to keep it as a base for the traditional lifestyle of indigenous peoples. This desire stems from the orientation of the state for the revival of traditional lifestyle of indigenous peoples. However, in a market economy, it is hardly feasible. The older generation of herders, for whom reindeer herding as the embodiment of traditional lifestyle had self-sufficient value, leave this life. For those who will come to replace them, reindeer herding will be meaningful only if it is combined with the benefits of the market economy that is not happening. Without this revival, neither herding nor the traditional lifestyle of indigenous peoples of the Far East will not take place.
Far East, indigenous small-numbered peoples, reindeer husbandry, conditions of market reforms

Abryutina L. I. Narody Severa Rossii: pravo na zdorovie [The peoples of the North of Russia: the right to health]. Moscow, 1999, 163 p. (In Russ.)

Informatsiya ob ispolnenii byudzheta [Information about budget performance ]. Narodovlastie [Democracy]. March 13, 2010. (In Russ.)

Kamchatskii krai. Ofitsialnyi sait [Kamchatka Krai. Official website]. Available at: http://www.kamchatka.gov.ru/?cont= nfo&menu=1&menu2=0&news_id=38188;(date of access: 23.02.2017). (In Russ.)

Khakhovskaya L. N. Magadanskoe olenevodstvo v usloviyakh rynochnoi ehkonomiki [Magadan reindeer herding in a market economy]. Vestnik DVO RАN [Vestnik FEB RAS]. 2007, Is. 3, pp. 77–86. (In Russ.)

Khakhovskaya L. N. Korennye narody Magadanskoi oblasti v XX – nachale XXI vv [Indigenous peoples of the Magadan Region in the XX – early XXI centuries]. Magadan, NESC FEB RAS Publ., 2008, 229 p. (In Russ.)

Khorolya D. O. Sovremennaya situatsiya i tendentsii v severnom olenevodstve Rossii [The Current Situation and Trends in the Northern Reindeer Herding of Russia]. Sovremennoe sostoyanie i puti razvitiya korennykh malochislennykh narodov Severa, Sibiri i Dalnego Vostoka RF [Current Status and Development Paths of Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation]. Moscow, Publication of the Council of the Federation, 2012, pp. 94–103. (In Russ.)

Klokov K. B. Sovremennoe polozhenie olenevodov i olenevodstva v Rossii [The Present Situation of Reindeer Herders and Reindeer Herding in Russia]. Sever i severyane. Sovremennoe polozhenie korennykh malochislennykh narodov Severa, Sibiri i Dalnego Vostoka Rossii [North and Northerners. The present situation of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of Russia]. Moscow, IEA RAS Publ., 2012, pp. 38–50. (In Russ.)

Klokov K. B., Khrushchev S. A. Olenevodcheskoe khozyaistvo korennykh narodov Severa Rossii: informatsionno-analiticheskii obzor [Reindeer husbandry of the indigenous peoples of the North of Russia: information and analytical review]. St. Petersburg, 2004, Vol. 1, 182 p. (In Russ.)

Korchmit V. A. Olenevodstvo Koryakii: ehtapy razvitiya, perspektivy vozrozhdeniya [Reindeer breeding of Koryakia: stages of development, prospects of revival]. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, KSTU Publ., 2001, 439 p. (In Russ.)

Koryakskii avtonomnyi okrug v tsifrakh [Koryaksky Autonomous Okrug in figures]. Palana, Koryakskii okrstat Publ., 2003, 79 p. (In Russ.)

Misinin V. M. Nazad v budushhee ili poslednyaya kochevka? [Back to the future or the last nomadic?]. 2011, available at: https://ecodelo.org/2736-nazad_v_budushchee_ili_poslednyaya_ kochevka-prirodopolzovanie (date of access: 11.03.2017). (In Russ.)

Nazarenko V. I., Poptsov A. G. Gosudarstvennoe regulirovanie selskogo khozyaistva v stranakh s razvitoi rynochnoi ehkonomikoi [State regulation of agriculture in countries with developed market economies]. Moscow, Informagrobiznes Publ., 1996, 340 p. (In Russ.)

Narody Severa Rossii (1960–1980-e gg.) [The peoples of the North of Russia (1960–1980)]. Materialy k serii “Narody i kultury” Vyp. XVIII [Materials for the series "Peoples and cultures" Is. 18]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1992, Parts 1–3, 719 p. (In Russ.)

Oparin D. A. Chukotskii avtonomnyi okrug [Chukotka Autonomous Okrug] // Sever i severyane. Sovremennoe polozhenie korennykh malochislennykh narodov Severa, Sibiri i Dalnego Vostoka Rossii [North and Northerners. The present situation of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of Russia]. Moscow, IEA RAS Publ., 2012, pp. 203–221. (In Russ.)

Sibirtseva E. Goryachie spory v kholodnoi tundre [Hot disputes in the cold tundra]. Kamchatskoe vremya [Kamchatka time]. 2013, available at: http://kamtime.ru/node/2443 (date of access: 06.02.2017). (In Russ.)

Sirina A. A. Khozyaistvo i sotsialnaya sfera [Economy and social sphere]. Sovremennoe polozhenie i perspektivy razvitiya malochislennykh narodov Severa, Sibiri i Dalnego Vostoka [Current position and prospects of development of small peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East]. Moscow, 2004, pp. 54–76. (In Russ.)

Sirina A. A. Ot sovkhoza k rodovoi obshhine: sotsialno-ehkonomicheskie transformatsii u narodov Severa v kontse XX veka [From the state farm to the clan community: socio-economic transformations among the peoples of the North at the end of the twentieth century]. Moscow, IEA RAS Publ., 2010, 185 p. (In Russ.)

Stada i tundra! Migrantov Kamchatki zovut v pastukhi [Herds of the tundra! Migrants of Kamchatka call to the shepherds]. Argumenty i fakty-Kamchatka [Arguments and facts-Kamchatka]. April 24, 2013. (In Russ.)

Stepura I. А oleni luchshe! [And the deer are better!]. Rossiiskaya gazeta [The Russian Newspaper]. Is. 5387 (11), January 21, 2011. (In Russ.)

Vesti iz sel okruga [News from the villages of the district]. Narodovlastie [Democracy]. October 11, 2008. (In Russ.)

Full text (russian)