«BULLETIN OF THE IRKUTSK STATE UNIVERSITY. GEOARCHAEOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, AND ANTHROPOLOGY SERIES»
ISSN 2227-2380 (Print)

List of issues > «Geoarchaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology Series». 2016. Vol. 17

Problem of Identification of Buddhist Mantras in the Tradition of Kalmyks Home Prayers

Author(s)
G. B. Korneev
Abstract
This article attempts to identify the Buddhist mantras, that layman Kalmyks use in their home prays. This tradition consists of home prays that performed by secular believers (that belong to “matsgta” community, “that keep a matsg” fast, which is committed on fasting days (three times a month), as well as during major Buddhist holidays. The Kalmyk home prays analyzed in several works of E. P. Bakaeva, G. Yu. Badmaeva and V. K. Shivlyanova. Along with prays in Tibetan and Kalmyk the Kalmyk home prays contain Buddhist Sanskrit mantra, which the Mongolic people started to use as early as the X–XI centuries. At that period, the Mongolic peoples encounter Buddhism for the first time from the ancient Uighurs. The tradition of recitation of mantras continued with the Mongols’ adoption of Tibetan Buddhism and maintained until nowadays. Mantras, which used by faithful Kalmyks, transmitted orally and undergone significant phonetic distortions. Sometimes the Sanskrit words replaced with similarly sounding Kalmyk words and sometimes even without keeping the original sounding. Kalmyk believers, that did not know Tibetan or Sanskrit, and equally perceived both languages as a sacral, sometimes even did not recognize them in their oral prays. However, these folk versions of traditional Buddhist prays affected the consciousness of believers, awakening their interest to study Buddhism and to flow practices.
Keywords
Buddhism, tradition of home prays of Kalmyks, Buddhist fasting, matsg, Sanskrit, Buddhist mantra, oral communication
UDC
392.9+294.3
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