Pottery Traditions of the Lower Amur Population in the Middle Neolithic
The middle Neolithic (7th – the frontier of 4th–3rd mill. BC) in the Lower Amur region correlates with Kondon and Malyshevo cultures, and also Boysman and Belkachi cultural-chronological complexes. Cultures are considered to be autochthonic. The complexes by the origin are connected with migrants from the South (Primorye; Boysman) and North (Yakutia; Belkachi). The Kondon and Malyshevo cultures presented by materials of 35 and more than 30 archaeological sites respectively are subdivided into early and late variants. This division is based first on external characteristics of vessels; in this connection, the results of physical and chemical investigations of ceramics technology are of special interest. The article purpose is to reveal specific features of ceramics of different chronological variants of Kondon pottery tradition based on data of an X-ray analysis, also to determine consistent patterns of ceramic production on different sites. A big series of fragments of vessels of early and late variants of Kondon culture from the collections of Kondon Pochta site and Innokentyevka site was investigated and the comparative analysis on the data of the X-ray analysis of early Kondon and Malyshevo ceramics was carried out. It is established that: 1) all samples generally contained quartz, Feld spars (plagioclases), micaceous minerals; 2) were allocated three main groups of diffraction pattern; 3) mineral phases were more ordered in late variant of ceramics of Kondon Pocta site; 4) the ceramics was fired at the temperature of 600–650–700 °C; 5) the investigations of raw materials and forming masses showed that in early Kondon and Malyshevo ceramics only one identical set was recorded. The main result – the dynamics of the Kondon pottery tradition is tracked: Kondon Pochta site (early variant), Innokentyevka site (early variant), Innokentyevka site (late variant), Kondon Pochta site (late variant). At early stages of the culture development, people made experiments with raw materials and forming masses. Experiments probably continued also at a late stage. First because of incompleteness of pottery tradition. Secondly, because of mixture (inwards – or outer wards cultural) of different variations of one tradition or several traditions presented by Malyshevo culture coexisting in considerable time with Kondon culture or with migrants from the neighboring territories of Amur region and Primorye. The similarity of morphological and ornamental features can indicate possible cross-cultural contacts.
Medvedev Vitalii Egorovich, Doctor of Sciences (History), Head of the Department of Neolithic, Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS; 17, Acad. Lavrentiev av., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Filatova Inga Vladimirovna, Candidate of Sciences (History), Associate Professor, Department of the History and Law, Amur State University of Humanities and Pedagogy; 17, build. 2, Kirov st., Komsomolsk-on Amur, 681000, Russia. Researcher, Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS; 17, Acad. Lavrentiev av., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation, e-mail: email@example.com
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