Craniofacial Reconstruction of the Woman from the Burial Ground Shayvyl of the Kushman Archaeological Complex of the Udmurt Republic
The article is devoted to anthropological studying of the representative of the ancient Udmurts population. Due to the sparsity of craniological material and as a rule considerable fragmentariness this find of almost whole skull is of the considerable interest both to the archeologists and anthropologists, namely craniologists and specialists in craniofacial reconstruction. The studied woman skull belongs to the Kushman complex of archaeological monuments of the end of 1th – the beginning of the 2nd millennium AD, located in Yar district of the Udmurt Republic, and falls into the period of Chepetsk archaeological culture. The center of the 10–13th centuries AD complex is the Kushman ancient settlement Uchkakar which was not only a strategic defensive outpost, but also potent agrarian and craft, shopping center. The funeral stock is presented by chips of a slightly burned modeled ceramic ware of fire roasting, fragments of bronze kettles, beads from the muffled and semi diaphanous glass, jewelry and their fragments of copper alloys, household products, and instruments of labor, weapon of iron, bone and stone. All collection received on Kushman culture Shayvyl burial ground has the good dating properties that allows estimating temporary borders of its using beforehand: 10–12th centuries. The analysis carried out in the article on the craniological characteristics brightly shows the woman's belonging to uraloid anthropological type which is characterized by a mezocraniya, the medium-to-high and wide face, weak horizontal profiling and the high, wide and slightly protrusive nose with a low bridge. Teeth of the buried are of good health, erased poorly. The age of the woman is estimated about 18–25 years. With the special anthropological technique of craniofacial reconstruction taking into account the last year’s developments the appearance of the woman and the descriptive portrait were made. The lifetime appearance of the buried can be characterized as follows: the head of rounded shape – meso-brakhikefaliya; brain department of the average sizes, the face of average height, rather narrow, with the expressed flatness; the forehead is wide, poorly sloping, the ridge of the nose of a direct form, a nose protrudes slightly. In general, the woman face has features of uraloid anthropological complex. The majority of the sizes get to category of averages that demonstrates harmony of the appearance.
Grigorieva Olga Mikhailovna, Candidate of Sciences (Biology), Senior Researcher, Center for Physical Anthropology, Laboratory of Anthropological Reconstruction, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology RAS; 32a, Leninsky prospect, Moscow, 119334, Russian Federation, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Veselovskaya Elizaveta Valentinovna, Doctor of Sciences (History), Leading Researcher, Center for Physical Anthropology, Laboratory of Anthropological Reconstruction, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology RAS; 32a, Leninsky prospect, Moscow, 119334, Russian Federation, e-mail: email@example.com
Vasilyev Sergei Vladimirovich, Doctor of Sciences (History), Head, Center for Physical Anthropology, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology RAS; 32a, Leninsky prospect, Moscow, 119334, Russian Federation, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Dyomin Alexandr Sergeyevich, Chief of Archaeology Department, Historical and Cultural Reservation Museum of the Udmurt Republic “Idnakar”; 27/38, Sovetskaya st., Glazov, 427620, Russian Federation, e-mail: email@example.com
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