Osteological Characteristics of Male Burials from the Yamnaya Culture of the Bronze Age Samara-Volga Region
In this article the results of research on osteological characteristics of human burials from the Bronze Age Yamnaya culture of the Samara-Volga region are presented. Individuals included in this study generally were over 40 years old at the time of death. Indicators of traumatic skeletal changes are relatively homogeneous within the sample population. The intermembrane and the shoulder-hip index are similar to those of people belonging to the mid-continental adaptive type. Men of this group feature a relatively shortened forearm, mid and low shoulder width, and a height of more than 170cm at adulthood, with considerable variation. The skeleton of the upper extremities was either semi-robust or gracile, while the skeleton of the lower extremities was highly robust. The pronounced development of musculo-skeletal markers indicates significant load-bearing activities.